The link above takes you to a study of world religions and cults, which some people call “alternative” faiths or other paths to God. Our stand will be on the truth of Jesus’ words in John 14:6, “I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.” Is this view narrow-minded and outdated, as some suggest? Quite the contrary. The words Christ speaks are “spirit” and “life” (John 6:63). To disregard them is perilous. Yet many do.
There are roughly 1.3 billion Muslims worldwide, 820 million Hindus, 400 million Buddhists, 13 million Mormons, 7 million Jehovah’s Witnesses, and millions more engaged in other false religions, or no religion at all. By all appearances, these people are sincere. They want to know the truth and believe they have found it. How can so many people be wrong? This study answers that question — and many others regarding people’s quest for ultimate truth.
Through this study, we will look at many belief systems, from Islam to Scientology. In each case, we’ll examine the background of the “alternative” faith and compare its beliefs to what the Bible says. We also will discuss effective means of witnessing to people who embrace these false religions.
Our purpose is not to condemn anyone or to assume God’s role as sovereign judge of the universe; rather, it is to compare the teachings of the world’s major religions and cults with biblical, historical Christianity so that we might be more effective in praying for and witnessing to the lost, and wiser in our ability to discern false doctrines. Every person, regardless of his or her religious beliefs, is precious in the eyes of God and is someone for whom Christ died. Our attitude as we study these false religious systems should be one of humility, love, and grace.
The words of the apostle Paul are clear: Those who are not grounded in the Word of God are subject to deceptive teachings about “another Jesus … a different spirit … a different gospel.” Every world religion and every cult that we study professes belief in Jesus and has an exalted place for Him in its theology. But without exception, each of these belief systems fails to correctly answer the key question Jesus asked in Matt. 16:15: “Who do you say that I am?” They also have false views of the Holy Spirit and without exception embrace a works-based doctrine of salvation.
Paul warned Christians in Acts 20:29-31: “I know that after my departure savage wolves will come in among you, not sparing the flock. And men from among yourselves will rise up with deviant doctrines to lure the disciples into following them. Therefore be on the alert …” Our prayer is that this study will help protect you, your family and your church from false teachers who proclaim “another Jesus … a different spirit … and a different gospel.”
Copyright 2008 by Rob Phillips
According to Adherents.com, there are 6.6 billion people in the world today. Among these are 1.5 billion Muslims, 1.1 billion nonreligious people, 900 million Hindus, nearly 400 million Buddhists, 7 million Baha’is, and millions of adherents to countless other faiths. The Web site also says there are 2.1 billion “Christians,” a broad category that includes Catholics and Protestants, Mormons and Jehovah’s Witnesses, and so-called “nominal” Christians.
If the exclusive claims of Jesus are true, and even if everyone who claims to be a Christian really is, then 4.5 billion people still stand outside the kingdom of heaven. By all appearances, these people are sincere. They want to know the truth, and many believe they have found it. How can 4.5 billion people be wrong? Every Christian can answer this question by understanding the Biblical descriptions of those who do not know Christ.
Think you know a lot about the differences between Christianity and other belief systems? Here’s a chance to test your knowledge — and have a little fun along the way. The answers are at the end of the exam.
1. Which of the following is not a Hindu scripture:
a) Rig Veda
b) Sama Veda
c) Yajur Veda
d) Darth Veda
2. True or false:
Islam is the second largest religion in the world – and one of the fastest growing.
3. True or false:
Buddhism has its roots in Hinduism but differs in many beliefs and practices.
4. The great dividing line between Judaism and Christianity is:
a) Kosher foods
b) The Sabbath
c) Mel Brooks
d) Jesus as Messiah
5. Who founded Scientology:
a) Tom Cruise
b) L. Ron Hubbard
c) E. Buzz Miller
d) Stephen Hawking
6. Which of the following religions is best summarized by the statement, “As man is, God once was; as God is, man may become:”
b) Christian Science
7. A cult is best described as:
a) A blue oyster
b) A dead-end street
c) Merchandise at Big Lots
d) Counterfeit Christianity
8. Muhammad taught that Jesus (circle all that apply):
a) Was a great prophet
b) Was born of a virgin
c) Lived a sinless life
d) Died on the cross
e) Is coming back one day
9. The Jehovah’s Witnesses deny (circle all that apply):
a) Ever knocking on your door
b) The deity of Christ
c) The Trinity
d) Soul sleep
e) Eternal punishment in hell
f) Jesus’ invisible return in 1914
10. Who is Siddhartha Gautama?
a) Master of the pan flute
b) The explorer who discovered Guatemala
c) The founder of Buddhism
d) The real name of rapper Snoop Dogg
11. True or false:
Mary Baker Eddy, L. Ron Hubbard and Sun Myung Moon joined forces in 1984 to form what they claimed was “perfect Christianity.” They called their new organization the Unification Church of Christian Scientology.
12. According to Mormon history, which of the following Jewish tribes crossed the Atlantic and became the ancestors of the American Indians:
a) The Lamanites
b) The Jebusites
c) The Parasites
d) The Kung Pao Buckaroos
1) d; 2) true; 3) true; 4) d; 5) b; 6) c; 7) d; 8) a, b, c, e; 9) b, c, e; 10) c; 11) false; 12) a
This week our Sunday school class completed a six-month study of world religions and cults. Members were invited to submit questions for discussion during our final week together. Below, I have posted their questions, along with my responses. To access all the documents we used in our study, click on the World Religions and Cults link to the right of the screen, or click on the link to individual studies such as Islam, Mormonism, etc.
1. What long-term trend does the Bible address regarding the growth or shrinkage of major religions and their current growth rates?
From the beginning, Satan has been a liar (John 8:44), producing false religions and promoting false doctrines through false Messiahs, false prophets, and false teachers. From a New Testament perspective, there will always be false religions, including counterfeit forms of Christianity, vying with true Christianity for the hearts of men and women. In the days before Christ’s return, they will all give way to the one-world religion of the Antichrist. Many Christians believe the church will be raptured, or caught up into heaven, before the Antichrist emerges, thus giving way to this false one-world system. Some speculate this religion will embrace New Age concepts and Eastern philosophies; others believe Islam is poised to become that one-world religion, but the Bible does not specifically say so.
The Bible warns of false prophets and counterfeit Messiahs in the last days – the days between Pentecost and the return of Christ. Some of these “antichrists,” as John calls them, will even perform miracles, leading many astray (see Matt. 7:21-23; 24:4-5, 11-12, 24; 1 John 2:18; 4:1-4). Even Jesus wondered aloud whether He would find faith on the earth when He returns (Luke 18:8). Paul, Peter, John, and Jude exhorted believers to hold fast to the true doctrines of Christianity because they will come under attack. And the book of Revelation describes a one-world religion led by the Antichrist – one opposed to the real Jesus, and one who also happens to stand in His place. At the same time, Jesus assured us that during the dark days prior to His return, the gospel would be preached in all the world (Matt. 24:14).
While there are many false belief systems in the world today, the apostle Paul tells us to watch for three common threads. False teachers will preach another Jesus, a different Spirit, and a different gospel (2 Cor. 11:3-4).
2. What are the reasons the Seventh-Day Adventists give for holding Saturday as their Sabbath? What about their dietary restrictions?
First, it’s important to note that Seventh-Day Adventism (SDA) is not a cult as we have defined it (a religious organization whose members claim to be Christian, and who use the Bible and Christian terms, yet who deny the central beliefs of biblical Christianity). SDA’s views on the Trinity, the person and work of Christ, the personhood and deity of the Holy Spirit, and the inspiration and authority of Scripture are orthodox. Rather, SDA should be seen as a sect – that is, a Christian denomination that embraces distinctive doctrines not in accord with historic Christianity.
The SDA view of the Sabbath is one such teaching. The organization’s official Web site, www.adventist.org, says this about the Sabbath:
The beneficent Creator, after the six days of Creation, rested on the seventh day and instituted the Sabbath for all people as a memorial of Creation. The fourth commandment of God’s unchangeable law requires the observance of this seventh-day Sabbath as the day of rest, worship, and ministry in harmony with the teaching and practice of Jesus, the Lord of the Sabbath. The Sabbath is a day of delightful communion with God and one another. It is a symbol of our redemption in Christ, a sign of our sanctification, a token of our allegiance, and a foretaste of our eternal future in God’s kingdom. The Sabbath is God’s perpetual sign of His eternal covenant between Him and His people. Joyful observance of this holy time from evening to evening, sunset to sunset, is a celebration of God’s creative and redemptive acts. (Gen. 2:1-3; Ex. 20:8-11; Luke 4:16; Isa. 56:5, 6; 58:13, 14; Matt. 12:1-12; Ex. 31:13-17; Eze. 20:12, 20; Deut. 5:12-15; Heb. 4:1-11; Lev. 23:32; Mark 1:32.)
In response, we should note two things. First, the early church adopted the practice of worshiping on Sunday (the “Lord’s Day”) in commemoration of Christ’s resurrection (Mark 16:9; Acts 20:7; 1 Cor. 16:2). Second, the apostle Paul made it clear that the day one chooses to set aside for worship is a matter of personal conviction, not divine mandate (Rom. 14:5-8). SDA’s insistence that Sunday worship is the “mark of the beast” is in error. As Tal Davis puts it, “Salvation and commitment to Christ are not demonstrated by adherence to external legalities (see Rom. 13:8-10, 14:4-13; 1 Cor. 16:2; Gal. 4:9-11; Col. 2:13-17)” (“Seventh-Day Adventism,” found on www.4truth.net).
As for dietary restrictions, the SDA Web site says:
Along with adequate exercise and rest, we are to adopt the most healthful diet possible and abstain from the unclean foods identified in the Scriptures. Since alcoholic beverages, tobacco, and the irresponsible use of drugs and narcotics are harmful to our bodies, we are to abstain from them as well. Instead, we are to engage in whatever brings our thoughts and bodies into the discipline of Christ, who desires our wholesomeness, joy, and goodness. (Rom. 12:1, 2; 1 John 2:6; Eph. 5:1-21; Phil. 4:8; 2 Cor. 10:5; 6:14-7:1; 1 Peter 3:1-4; 1 Cor. 6:19, 20; 10:31; Lev. 11:1-47; 3 John 2.)
The Web site www.religioustolerance.org adds: “They (SDAs) were once also expected to abstain from caffeinated drinks such as coffee, tea, cola drinks, etc. The church has since removed this from the baptismal vows, although they still recommend that policy. They have interpreted the Old Testament dietary laws as prohibiting the eating of some foods. The church recommends avoiding red meat. Many SDA members are vegetarians who supplement their diet with eggs and milk.”
A brief response is in order. While a person’s diet may testify to his or her beliefs about the body as the Temple of the Holy Spirit, and while Seventh-Day Adventists may be commended for promoting exercise, rest and healthy eating habits, the Old Testament dietary restrictions for Jews are not to be imposed upon the New Testament church (see Mark 7:15-23; Rom. 14:1-23).
3. What is the most threatening to the basic foundation of Christianity on a short and long-term basis?
The immature Christian. Too many believers remain infants in the faith, feeding on milk rather than on the meat of God’s Word (Heb. 5:11-14). Such people fill the pews of our churches yet are ill equipped to recognize and rebuff false teachings. With “itching ears” they follow eloquent false prophets, and like chaff they are blown about by “every wind of doctrine” (see 2 Tim. 4:3; Eph. 4:14).
Beyond that, the greatest threat to Christianity today is not Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism or other world religions that distance themselves from Christianity and attack it from without; it is the counterfeit forms of Christianity that attack it from within. False prophets, whom Jesus called “ravaging wolves in sheep’s clothing” (Matt. 7:15), are devouring the flock, and we have no excuse for it. Peter wrote a stark warning to the church when he said: “For the time has come for judgment to begin with God’s household; and if it begins with us, what will the outcome be for those who disobey the gospel of God?” (1 Peter 4:17).
Christians today should follow the advice of the apostle John, who exhorted us in 1 John 4:1-4 to:
· Not believe every spirit (that is, every person proclaiming a divine gift for service; or “antichrists”);
· Test the spirits to see whether they are of God;
· Know the Spirit of God.
|What the Bible says about God:||What Buddhism says about God:|
|There is one true and living God, who exists as three distinct, co-equal, co-eternal persons: Father, Son and Holy Spirit (Deut. 6:4; John 20:28; Acts 5:3-4; 2 Cor. 13:13; 1 Peter 1:2). God is personal and is to be the only object of worship (Ex. 20:2-3; Isa. 43:10, 44:6; Matt. 4:10).||Buddhists do not worship a God who created and sustains the world. Theravada Buddhism considers the concept of God irrelevant; it is basically atheistic. Mahayana Buddhism worships the Buddha as a god, along with other gods. Other forms of Buddhism add shamanism and elements of the occult.|
|What the Bible says about Jesus:||What Buddhism says about Jesus:|
|He is the virgin-born Son of God, conceived by the Holy Spirit (Isa. 7:14; Matt. 1:18-23; Luke 1:35). He is the eternal God, the Creator, co-equal and co-eternal with the Father and Holy Spirit (John 1:1-14; Col. 1:15-20; Phil. 2:5-11; Heb. 1:1-13). Jesus died for our sins (1 Cor. 15:3), rose physically from the dead (Matt. 12:38-40; Rom. 1:4; 1 Cor. 15:4-8; 1 Peter 1:18-21) and is coming back physically and visibly one day (Matt. 24:29-31; John 14:3; Titus 2:13; Rev. 19:11-16).||Jesus was a great religious teacher who may have achieved enlightenment. Even so, he was one among many and therefore not unique.|
|What the Bible says about salvation:||What Buddhism says about salvation:|
|Christ’s death at Calvary completely paid our sin debt so that salvation comes by grace alone through faith in the person and work of Jesus (John 3:16, 5:24; Rom. 4:4-5; 1 Cor. 15:1-4; Eph. 2:8-9; Titus 3:5).||The goal of life is to achieve nirvana, or the cessation of suffering.|
|What the Bible says about the Bible:||What Buddhism says about the Bible:|
|The Bible is the inerrant, infallible, inspired Word of God, and is His sole written authority for all people (2 Tim. 3:16-17; 2 Peter 1:20-21).||The authoritative writings for Buddhists are the Sutras and the Tripitaka (The Three Baskets). The Bible contains good teaching but is not authoritative.|
|What the Bible says about man:||What Buddhism says about man:|
|God created man in His image – with a human spirit, personality and will. A person’s life begins at conception and is everlasting, but not eternal; that is, our lives have no end, but they did have a distinct beginning (Gen. 1:26-28; Ps. 139:13-16).||Buddhists embrace the concept of anatta (no self). In traditional Buddhism, “no self” means there is no permanent identity to continue from one moment to the next. The human personality is made up of five skanda, or parts, which are only momentary, but they group together to give the illusion of permanence, like the flow of a river or the flame of a candle.|
|What the Bible says about sin:||What Buddhism says about sin:|
|Sin is a violation of God’s perfect and holy standards. All humans are sinners (Rom. 3:10) and are under the curse of sin – spiritual and physical death (Gen. 2:17, 3:17-19; Rom. 3:23). Only faith in Christ and His work on our behalf frees us from sin and its consequences (John 3:16, 5:24; Eph. 2:8-9).||There is no such thing as sin against a supreme being. The human condition is suffering, caused by attachment to things and the cravings / desires accompanying the attachment.|
|What the Bible says about death and the afterlife:||What Buddhism says about death and the afterlife:|
|Physical and spiritual deaths come upon all people as a consequence of their sin (Gen. 2:17; Rom. 3:23; Eph. 2:1). A person becomes spiritually alive when he or she is “born again” by the Spirit of God (John 3:3-6; Eph. 2:4-5). At physical death, our souls and spirits separate from our bodies [which go into the grave to await resurrection and final judgment] and enter an everlasting state of blessedness [for those born again] or torment [for those who die in their sins] (Luke 16:19-31; 2 Cor. 5:8).||Buddhists believe the cycle of death and rebirth, known as samsara, has been going on since time without beginning. Their goal is to end this cycle by attaining nirvana, a state of being that is realized through eliminating desire. Nirvana comes at two moments: at awakening or enlightenment, and at parinirvana, when the fire of personality finally flickers out (final death). The path to nirvana is divided into eight categories of disciplines that are meant to avoid bad karma that leads to dangerous and difficult forms of rebirth.|
|Hell is a place of everlasting conscious existence, where the unbeliever is forever separated from God (Matt. 25:46; Luke 16:19-31; Rev. 14:9-11, 20:10). As for Heaven, all believers have God’s promise of a home in Heaven, will go there instantly upon physical death, and will return with Christ from Heaven to earth one day (Luke 16:19-31; John 14:1-3; 2 Cor. 5:8; Rev. 19:14).||There is no heaven or hell as understood by Christians.|