Tagged: ruler of this world

The fifth trumpet — Revelation 9:1-12

Previously: I heard an eagle — Revelation 8:12-13

The scripture

Rev. 9:1 – The fifth angel blew his trumpet, and I saw a star that had fallen from heaven to earth. The key to the shaft of the abyss was given to him. 2He opened the shaft of the abyss, and smoke came up out of the shaft like smoke from a great furnace so that the sun and the air were darkened by the smoke from the shaft. 3Then out of the smoke locusts came to the earth, and power was given to them like the power that scorpions have on the earth. 4They were told not to harm the grass of the earth, or any green plant, or any tree, but only people who do not have God’s seal on their foreheads. 5They were not permitted to kill them, but were to torment [them] for five months; their torment is like the torment caused by a scorpion when it strikes a man. 6In those days people will seek death and will not find it; they will long to die, but death will flee from them.

  7The appearance of the locusts was like horses equipped for battle. On their heads were something like gold crowns; their faces were like men’s faces; 8they had hair like women’s hair; their teeth were like lions’ teeth; 9they had chests like iron breastplates; the sound of their wings was like the sound of chariots with many horses rushing into battle; 10and they had tails with stingers, like scorpions, so that with their tails they had the power to harm people for five months. 11They had as their king the angel of the abyss; his name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek he has the name Apollyon. 12The first woe has passed. There are still two more woes to come after this. (HCSB)

The fifth trumpet

As the angel sounds the fifth trumpet, he ushers in the first woe that the eagle warned about in verse 13 of the previous chapter. The severity of the judgments increases as the Lord changes the focus from natural objects – the earth, seas, fresh water and celestial bodies – to the wicked inhabitants of the earth.

The imagery in this judgment is graphic and horrifying. A “star” falls to earth and opens a door to a great abyss, releasing heavy smoke that darkens the light of the sun and freeing “locusts” who are empowered to torment the wicked for five months. These locusts wear crowns, have faces like men, hair like women, teeth like lions, and wings that produce a deafening noise. They wield tails that sting like scorpions. And they have a king: the angel of the abyss who is called Abaddon in Hebrew and Apollyon in Greek.

Are we to take this literally? Who is the “star” that falls from heaven to earth? What is the abyss, and where is it located? Who are these “locusts” that have human and animal features? And who is their king? Let’s dig in.

I saw a star that had fallen

As soon as the angel blows the fifth trumpet (shofar, or ram’s horn; see The first trumpet for more details), John sees “a star that had fallen from heaven to earth.” Clearly, this is not a celestial body for the star is called “he” and is given a key that opens the shaft of the abyss. Some commentators identify this star as Satan and connect the fifth trumpet with Rev. 12: “So the great dragon was thrown out – the ancient serpent, who is called the Devil and Satan, the one who deceives the whole world. He was thrown to earth, and his angels with him…. Therefore rejoice, O heavens, and you who dwell in them! Woe to the earth and the sea, for the Devil has come down to you with great fury, because he knows he has a short time (vv. 9, 12).”

Some of these interpreters compare these verses with Isa. 14:12: “Shining morning star [Lucifer], how you have fallen from the heavens! You destroyer of nations, you have been cut down to the ground.” However, connecting this verse to Satan is a stretch. It is based on the later Latin translation of “shining morning star” as Lucifer, or “light-bearer,” and likely is not what Isaiah intended. The prophet is referring to a real king – perhaps Merodach-baladan, the Babylonian king who makes a treaty with Judah’s King Hezekiah. The Babylonian ruler will die and be powerless in Sheol, the realm of deceased spirits. Calling the Babylonian ruler the “morning star” in Isaiah may have been a sarcastic reference to his arrogance.

Some also seek to draw a parallel between the fifth trumpet and Luke 10:18, in which Jesus, who welcomes the return of His disciples, says, “I watched Satan fall from heaven like a lightning flash.” But Jesus likely is speaking metaphorically, pointing out that the ministry of the disciples is an assault on Satan’s authority.

In any case, the passages in Revelation are the primary building blocks for the view that the “star” of the fifth trumpet is Satan, and his fall evidently came in the distant past since the scripture clearly tells us he “has fallen.” But there are other interpretations. Some commentators argue that the star is an angel, or a demon; angels frequently are depicted as falling stars in intertestamental Jewish apocalyptic literature. Others say he is a religious leader, perhaps the high priest who leads the nation of Israel into its final days of darkness before the destruction of the temple, or a heretical Christian leader who spreads false teachings throughout the church. Still others see the star as Muhammad, the founder of Islam, who leads successful campaigns against the Eastern Roman Empire in the 7th century. And then, others say the star in the fifth trumpet is the same as the star Wormwood in the third trumpet.

All things considered, it seems best to understand this star either as Satan or one of his demons.  While Satan has no authority in heaven – although he still has access to God’s throne and accuses us there – he retains authority over his earthly kingdom. But he does not have absolute power on earth and operates under the sovereign hand of Almighty God. He can do nothing to believers without God’s permission. Equally important, the Lord oversees the evil that Satan does and works it to the ultimate good. For example, the greatest evil in human history – the crucifixion of Christ – results in Satan’s defeat, our forgiveness, and the promise of new heavens and a new earth in which Satan, demons, unbelievers and sin play no part.

Abaddon and Apollyon

If the “star” in verse 1 is the same as the “angel of the abyss” in verse 11, it strengthens the argument that this is Satan or a demon. The Hebrew word Abaddon means destruction; it also is associated with the realm of the dead. The Greek name Apollyon means destroyer. While Satan is not specifically called “destroyer” in other passages of scripture, this name is consistent with other descriptions. He is called “the father of liars” (John 8:44); “accuser” (Rev. 12:10); “adversary” (1 Peter 5:8); “deceiver” (Rev. 12:9); “dragon” (Rev. 12:9); “Devil” (1 John 3:8); “Enemy” (Matt. 13:38); “evil one” (John 17:15); “murderer” (John 8:44); “roaring lion” (1 Peter 5:8); “Beelzebul, the ruler of the demons” (Luke 11:15); “ruler of this world” (John 12:31); “great dragon … ancient serpent” (Rev. 12:9); “tempter” (Matt. 4:3); and the “wicked/evil one” (Eph. 6:16).

Jesus refers to Satan’s minions as those who steal, kill and destroy (John 10:8), so perhaps that reflects on his character as a destroyer. But even if this is not Satan, it could be a powerful demon, one of the angels who fell with Satan. The description of the star as “fallen” would seem to indicate this is an evil being, for holy angels to do not fall from heaven but are sent by God.

This star, Abaddon, appears to have some authority over the abyss and the creatures confined within. In scripture we see demons possess territorial authority but it is never outside the sovereign authority of God.

Still, that leaves at least one burning question: If the wicked on earth belong to Satan and are citizens of his kingdom, why would Abaddon willingly unleash terrible torments upon them? This is not an easy question to answer, but one possible explanation is that Satan has no regard for anyone but himself. He does not reverence God, who created him. He battles constantly against the Lord’s holy angels. His demons possess and torment people with all kinds of illnesses and ailments. He has no interest in the welfare of human life. He enslaves people in sin. He knows the wicked spend eternity in hell yet does nothing to stop it. And, if he can destroy unbelievers before they repent of their sins and trust in Christ, he ensures that they spend eternity with him in outer darkness.

Fully grasping the evil inherent in the “evil one” may be beyond the pale of human understanding, but we see glimpses of it in human depravity. Why do some mothers kill their babies? Why do some husbands abuse their wives? Why do some family members plot against each other? Why do tyrants exterminate their fellow countrymen? Pure evil makes no sense except to evil people – and perhaps it makes no sense even to them. But lest we become too self-righteous in condemning evil in others, we should remind ourselves of this truth: “There is no one righteous, not even one; there is no one who understands, there is no one who seeks God” (Rom. 3:10). We should be grateful for God’s grace in us and trust His Spirit to overcome the evil we are still quite capable of doing.

Next: The key to the shaft of the abyss was given him (Rev. 9:1-12)

“Fall on us and hide us” — Revelation 6:12-17

Previously: The kings … hid in caves (Rev. 6:12-17)

The scripture

Rev. 6:12 – Then I saw Him open the sixth seal. A violent earthquake occurred; the sun turned black like sackcloth made of goat hair; the entire moon became like blood; 13 the stars of heaven fell to the earth as a fig tree drops its unripe figs when shaken by a high wind; 14 the sky separated like a scroll being rolled up; and every mountain and island was moved from its place. 15 Then the kings of the earth, the nobles, the military commanders, the rich, the powerful, and every slave and free person hid in the caves and among the rocks of the mountains. 16 And they said to the mountains and to the rocks, “Fall on us and hide us from the face of the One seated on the throne and from the wrath of the Lamb, 17 because the great day of Their wrath has come! And who is able to stand?” (HCSB)

“Fall on us and hide us …”

The earth’s wicked cry out to the mountains and rocks, “Fall on us and hide us from the face of the One seated on the throne and from the wrath of the Lamb …” (v. 16). There is an interesting parallel between this verse and other places in scripture where the wicked, who have shunned God in favor of idols made of earthly elements, are left calling upon these elements for help.

One such example may be found in the apostate people of Israel in Jeremiah 2. Take note:

  • First, the leaders get comfortable in God’s grace and stop seeking the Lord. “They [the fathers] stopped asking: Where is the Lord … The priests quit asking: Where is the Lord? The experts no longer knew Me, and the rulers rebelled against Me. The prophets prophesied by Baal and followed useless idols” (Jer. 2:6a, 8).
  • Next, the people embrace idols. “My people have exchanged their Glory for useless idols….For My people have committed a double evil: They have abandoned Me, the fountain of living water, and dug cisterns for themselves, cracked cisterns that cannot hold water” (Jer. 2:11b, 13).
  • Then, they insist they have done nothing wrong; in fact, they celebrate their religious diversity. “[Y]ou have said: I have not sinned” (Jer. 2:35b).
  • Finally, God’s judgment falls. “Have you not brought this on yourself by abandoning the Lord your God while He was leading you along the way … Your own evil will discipline you; your own apostasies will reprimand you. Think it over and see how evil and bitter it is for you to abandon the Lord your God and to have no fear of Me…. The stain of your guilt is still in front of Me” (Jer. 2: 17, 19, 22b).
  • Rather than acknowledge their sin, confess it and repent of it, the people are left invoking their idols for deliverance. “They, their kings, their officials, their priests, and their prophets say to a tree: You are my father, and to a stone: You gave birth to me. For they have turned their back to Me and not their face, but in their time of disaster they beg: Rise up and save us! But where are your gods you made for yourself? Let them rise up and save you in your time of disaster if they can” (Jer. 2:26b-28a).

In Romans 1 the apostle Paul describes a similar spiral of descent for the Gentile world. Having rejected the evidence for God in creation and conscience, the wicked suppress the truth, embrace unrighteousness, celebrate ungodliness and, as a result, are without excuse. In fact, Paul writes that God delivers them over to “sexual impurity … degrading passions … [and] a worthless mind” (Rom. 1:24, 26, 28).

As the sixth seal is opened in Revelation 6 and God’s wrath falls on the wicked – both those who boast “a form of godliness” (2 Tim. 3:5 KJV) and those who openly embraced paganism – there is clear recognition that God is the author of this judgment. Just as it is clear to the apostate Israelites in Jeremiah 2 and the wicked Gentiles in Romans 1 (“they know full well God’s just sentence,” Rom. 1:32), there is no escaping the reality that a day of reckoning with the Lord has come. Yet they would rather be covered by tons of rock and dirt than cleansed by the blood of the Lamb. The utter depths of man’s depravity are echoed in the mountain caves as the wicked respond to God’s wrath the only way they know how – by calling on the mountains and rocks to hide them.

“The contents of chapter 6 should put to rest the false teachings that God, being a God of love, could not judge a wicked world” (J.F. Walvoord, R.B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, Rev. 6:15–17).

From whom do the wicked wish to hide? From “the One seated on the throne and from the wrath of the Lamb” (v. 16). Obviously, this a reference to God the Father – the One seated on the throne – and His Son, the Lamb. There is a singular wrath from these two Persons of the triune Godhead. Our sins offend a holy God, who exists as three co-equal, co-eternal persons: Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Yet the Father sent His Son to be the Savior of the world (1 John 4:14) and then sent the Holy Spirit to convince lost sinners of their desperate need for Christ (John 16:7-11).

Those who reject God in spite of His gracious offer of salvation have chosen God’s wrath and preferred to cast their eternal lot with “the ruler of the world” for whom hell was created (John 16:11; Matt. 25:41). God is angry at sin – so angry, in fact, that He judged sin in His own Son on the cross. Should not His wrath be poured out on those who both sin and reject God’s provision for forgiveness?

Next: The great day of Their wrath has come (Rev. 6:12-17)