Rev. 9:1 – The fifth angel blew his trumpet, and I saw a star that had fallen from heaven to earth. The key to the shaft of the abyss was given to him. 2He opened the shaft of the abyss, and smoke came up out of the shaft like smoke from a great furnace so that the sun and the air were darkened by the smoke from the shaft. 3Then out of the smoke locusts came to the earth, and power was given to them like the power that scorpions have on the earth. 4They were told not to harm the grass of the earth, or any green plant, or any tree, but only people who do not have God’s seal on their foreheads. 5They were not permitted to kill them, but were to torment [them] for five months; their torment is like the torment caused by a scorpion when it strikes a man. 6In those days people will seek death and will not find it; they will long to die, but death will flee from them.
7The appearance of the locusts was like horses equipped for battle. On their heads were something like gold crowns; their faces were like men’s faces; 8they had hair like women’s hair; their teeth were like lions’ teeth; 9they had chests like iron breastplates; the sound of their wings was like the sound of chariots with many horses rushing into battle; 10and they had tails with stingers, like scorpions, so that with their tails they had the power to harm people for five months. 11They had as their king the angel of the abyss; his name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek he has the name Apollyon. 12The first woe has passed. There are still two more woes to come after this. (HCSB)
The fifth trumpet
As the angel sounds the fifth trumpet, he ushers in the first woe that the eagle warned about in verse 13 of the previous chapter. The severity of the judgments increases as the Lord changes the focus from natural objects – the earth, seas, fresh water and celestial bodies – to the wicked inhabitants of the earth.
The imagery in this judgment is graphic and horrifying. A “star” falls to earth and opens a door to a great abyss, releasing heavy smoke that darkens the light of the sun and freeing “locusts” who are empowered to torment the wicked for five months. These locusts wear crowns, have faces like men, hair like women, teeth like lions, and wings that produce a deafening noise. They wield tails that sting like scorpions. And they have a king: the angel of the abyss who is called Abaddon in Hebrew and Apollyon in Greek.
Are we to take this literally? Who is the “star” that falls from heaven to earth? What is the abyss, and where is it located? Who are these “locusts” that have human and animal features? And who is their king? Let’s dig in.
I saw a star that had fallen
As soon as the angel blows the fifth trumpet (shofar, or ram’s horn; see The first trumpet for more details), John sees “a star that had fallen from heaven to earth.” Clearly, this is not a celestial body for the star is called “he” and is given a key that opens the shaft of the abyss. Some commentators identify this star as Satan and connect the fifth trumpet with Rev. 12: “So the great dragon was thrown out – the ancient serpent, who is called the Devil and Satan, the one who deceives the whole world. He was thrown to earth, and his angels with him…. Therefore rejoice, O heavens, and you who dwell in them! Woe to the earth and the sea, for the Devil has come down to you with great fury, because he knows he has a short time (vv. 9, 12).”
Some of these interpreters compare these verses with Isa. 14:12: “Shining morning star [Lucifer], how you have fallen from the heavens! You destroyer of nations, you have been cut down to the ground.” However, connecting this verse to Satan is a stretch. It is based on the later Latin translation of “shining morning star” as Lucifer, or “light-bearer,” and likely is not what Isaiah intended. The prophet is referring to a real king – perhaps Merodach-baladan, the Babylonian king who makes a treaty with Judah’s King Hezekiah. The Babylonian ruler will die and be powerless in Sheol, the realm of deceased spirits. Calling the Babylonian ruler the “morning star” in Isaiah may have been a sarcastic reference to his arrogance.
Some also seek to draw a parallel between the fifth trumpet and Luke 10:18, in which Jesus, who welcomes the return of His disciples, says, “I watched Satan fall from heaven like a lightning flash.” But Jesus likely is speaking metaphorically, pointing out that the ministry of the disciples is an assault on Satan’s authority.
In any case, the passages in Revelation are the primary building blocks for the view that the “star” of the fifth trumpet is Satan, and his fall evidently came in the distant past since the scripture clearly tells us he “has fallen.” But there are other interpretations. Some commentators argue that the star is an angel, or a demon; angels frequently are depicted as falling stars in intertestamental Jewish apocalyptic literature. Others say he is a religious leader, perhaps the high priest who leads the nation of Israel into its final days of darkness before the destruction of the temple, or a heretical Christian leader who spreads false teachings throughout the church. Still others see the star as Muhammad, the founder of Islam, who leads successful campaigns against the Eastern Roman Empire in the 7th century. And then, others say the star in the fifth trumpet is the same as the star Wormwood in the third trumpet.
All things considered, it seems best to understand this star either as Satan or one of his demons. While Satan has no authority in heaven – although he still has access to God’s throne and accuses us there – he retains authority over his earthly kingdom. But he does not have absolute power on earth and operates under the sovereign hand of Almighty God. He can do nothing to believers without God’s permission. Equally important, the Lord oversees the evil that Satan does and works it to the ultimate good. For example, the greatest evil in human history – the crucifixion of Christ – results in Satan’s defeat, our forgiveness, and the promise of new heavens and a new earth in which Satan, demons, unbelievers and sin play no part.
Abaddon and Apollyon
If the “star” in verse 1 is the same as the “angel of the abyss” in verse 11, it strengthens the argument that this is Satan or a demon. The Hebrew word Abaddon means destruction; it also is associated with the realm of the dead. The Greek name Apollyon means destroyer. While Satan is not specifically called “destroyer” in other passages of scripture, this name is consistent with other descriptions. He is called “the father of liars” (John 8:44); “accuser” (Rev. 12:10); “adversary” (1 Peter 5:8); “deceiver” (Rev. 12:9); “dragon” (Rev. 12:9); “Devil” (1 John 3:8); “Enemy” (Matt. 13:38); “evil one” (John 17:15); “murderer” (John 8:44); “roaring lion” (1 Peter 5:8); “Beelzebul, the ruler of the demons” (Luke 11:15); “ruler of this world” (John 12:31); “great dragon … ancient serpent” (Rev. 12:9); “tempter” (Matt. 4:3); and the “wicked/evil one” (Eph. 6:16).
Jesus refers to Satan’s minions as those who steal, kill and destroy (John 10:8), so perhaps that reflects on his character as a destroyer. But even if this is not Satan, it could be a powerful demon, one of the angels who fell with Satan. The description of the star as “fallen” would seem to indicate this is an evil being, for holy angels to do not fall from heaven but are sent by God.
This star, Abaddon, appears to have some authority over the abyss and the creatures confined within. In scripture we see demons possess territorial authority but it is never outside the sovereign authority of God.
Still, that leaves at least one burning question: If the wicked on earth belong to Satan and are citizens of his kingdom, why would Abaddon willingly unleash terrible torments upon them? This is not an easy question to answer, but one possible explanation is that Satan has no regard for anyone but himself. He does not reverence God, who created him. He battles constantly against the Lord’s holy angels. His demons possess and torment people with all kinds of illnesses and ailments. He has no interest in the welfare of human life. He enslaves people in sin. He knows the wicked spend eternity in hell yet does nothing to stop it. And, if he can destroy unbelievers before they repent of their sins and trust in Christ, he ensures that they spend eternity with him in outer darkness.
Fully grasping the evil inherent in the “evil one” may be beyond the pale of human understanding, but we see glimpses of it in human depravity. Why do some mothers kill their babies? Why do some husbands abuse their wives? Why do some family members plot against each other? Why do tyrants exterminate their fellow countrymen? Pure evil makes no sense except to evil people – and perhaps it makes no sense even to them. But lest we become too self-righteous in condemning evil in others, we should remind ourselves of this truth: “There is no one righteous, not even one; there is no one who understands, there is no one who seeks God” (Rom. 3:10). We should be grateful for God’s grace in us and trust His Spirit to overcome the evil we are still quite capable of doing.
Next: The key to the shaft of the abyss was given him (Rev. 9:1-12)
Rev. 6:7 – When He opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth living creature say, “Come!” 8And I looked, and there was a pale green horse. The horseman on it was named Death, and Hades was following after him. Authority was given to them over a fourth of the earth, to kill by the sword, by famine, by plague, and by the wild animals of the earth” (HCSB).
A horseman named Death
Death is personified in this passage as a rider on a pale horse. This should not surprise us, as the inevitable end to life is depicted in many ways in scripture and folklore. In English, he is given the name Grim Reaper and, from the 15th century onward, is seen as a skeletal figure clothed in a black robe and hood, carrying a large scythe. In ancient Greece, death is sometimes depicted as a bearded, winged man, and sometimes as a young boy. His name is Thanatos, and his job is to escort departed souls to Hades. The Hindu scriptures speak of Yajarah, the lord of death, who rides a black buffalo and carries a lasso with which to bring souls to the underworld. The Lithuanians long ago named death Giltine, an old, ugly woman with a long blue nose and a poisonous tongue; they later adopted the image of the Grim Reaper.
In the Bible, we see death personified in a number of ways. In the Exodus, for example, the Lord Himself kills the first-born males not covered by the blood of the Passover lamb, while promising His faithful people He will not permit the “destroyer” to enter their homes (Ex. 12:23). In 2 Kings 19:35, “the Angel of the Lord” strikes dead 185,000 Assyrians who are encamped around Jerusalem. King David, whose people suffer the consequences of his sin of taking a military census, sees this same angel standing between earth and heaven, with his sword drawn (1 Chron. 21:16). Death, of course, also is described as a horseman, as in Rev. 6:7; as a ruler and enslaver (Rom. 7:24, 8:2); as just payment for sin (Rom. 6:23); and as an enemy to be defeated (1 Cor. 15:26).
The word “death” is used about 400 times in scripture. New Bible Dictionary makes the following observation, “From one point of view death is the most natural of things: ‘man is destined to die once’ (Heb. 9:27). It may be accepted without rebellion: ‘Let me die the death of the righteous’ (Nu. 23:10). From another, it is most unnatural. It is the penalty for sin (Rom. 6:23), and is to be feared as such. Both points of view are found in the Bible; neither should be overlooked” (p. 265).
While death comes to every living thing, from house plants to people, is affects humans in a unique way. God has created us with souls and spirits that live beyond the grave. Only human beings are described as spiritually dead and in need of redemption. And only human beings are in danger of the second death, which is the lake of fire, or hell (Rev. 20:14). That’s why the apostle Paul could embrace death, for to him to be absent from the body was to be present with the Lord. That’s also why scripture warns the unbeliever to be afraid of death, for it leads inevitably to hell. In Adam’s sin, he brought two deaths upon mankind: physical and spiritual. All things die physically because of the curse of sin. But only human beings die spiritually and are separated from God. When Christ tasted death for every person (Heb. 2:9), He died twice. While on the cross, as He became sin for us (2 Cor. 5:21), Jesus was separated from God the Father, prompting Him to cry out, “My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?” (Matt. 27:46). But having satisfied the Father’s wrath, and before dying physically, Jesus could declare, “Father, into Your hands I entrust My spirit” (Luke 23:46); His relationship with the Father was restored, but that did not prevent His physical death.
Unbelievers are, in a sense, only two-thirds alive. They are alive, of course, in body. And their souls – minds, emotions, wills – are alive as well. But because of their sins, they are spiritually dead, cut off from the life of God and denied an intimate and everlasting relationship with Him. It is only when the Holy Spirit convicts unbelievers of their sin and draws them to Christ that they are made spiritually alive (regenerated, or born again) and justified, or acquitted of their sins. This is all the work of God, even acting upon the human heart and enabling the one who once hated God to receive Him by faith.
Death rides hard upon a pale horse, and the abode of the dead (Hades) follows closely behind. He tramples the wicked beneath him, while Hades picks up the pieces. By the end of Revelation 6, the wicked are calling on the rocks to hide them from the wrath of God. It is curious that they do not call upon the wrathful God to forgive them. But it’s too late. They are beyond repentance, beyond grace, beyond mercy. Death comes. Hades follows. Judgment pursues. And the second death, the lake of fire, awaits.
For believers, however, death is perhaps best personified as an enemy who will be destroyed. The apostle Paul writes, quoting from Isaiah and Hosea, “Death has been swallowed up in victory. O Death, where is your victory? O Death, where is your sting? Now the sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ” (1 Cor. 15:54b-57).
W.A. Criswell writes, “Though I face death tomorrow, yet, if I face Him today, my home, my refuge is not in the grave. The glory of God is not under the ground. The glory of God is in the pavilions of the heavens. God’s people have their house and their home and their destiny beyond the skies. For God’s people there is glory and light and victory and heaven. That is the call the Lord extends in this day of grace to your heart” (Expository Sermons on Revelation, p. 100).
Next: And Hades was following after him (Rev. 6:7-8)