Tagged: Abaddon

Smoke came up out of the shaft – Revelation 9:1-12

Previously: The key to the shaft of the abyss – Revelation 9:1-12

The scripture

Rev. 9:1 – The fifth angel blew his trumpet, and I saw a star that had fallen from heaven to earth. The key to the shaft of the abyss was given to him. 2He opened the shaft of the abyss, and smoke came up out of the shaft like smoke from a great furnace so that the sun and the air were darkened by the smoke from the shaft. 3Then out of the smoke locusts came to the earth, and power was given to them like the power that scorpions have on the earth. 4They were told not to harm the grass of the earth, or any green plant, or any tree, but only people who do not have God’s seal on their foreheads. 5They were not permitted to kill them, but were to torment [them] for five months; their torment is like the torment caused by a scorpion when it strikes a man. 6In those days people will seek death and will not find it; they will long to die, but death will flee from them.

  7The appearance of the locusts was like horses equipped for battle. On their heads were something like gold crowns; their faces were like men’s faces; 8they had hair like women’s hair; their teeth were like lions’ teeth; 9they had chests like iron breastplates; the sound of their wings was like the sound of chariots with many horses rushing into battle; 10and they had tails with stingers, like scorpions, so that with their tails they had the power to harm people for five months. 11They had as their king the angel of the abyss; his name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek he has the name Apollyon. 12The first woe has passed. There are still two more woes to come after this. (HCSB)

Smoke came up out of the shaft

When Abaddon opens the shaft of the abyss, John records that “smoke came up out of the shaft like smoke from a great furnace so that the sun and the air were darkened by the smoke from the shaft” (v. 2). Some commentators, like Matthew Henry, see the smoke symbolically: “The devils are the powers of darkness; hell is the place of darkness. The devil carries on his designs by blinding the eyes of men, by extinguishing light and knowledge, and promoting ignorance and error. He first deceives men, and then destroys them; wretched souls follow him in the dark, or they durst not follow him” (Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible: Complete and Unabridged in One Volume, Rev. Rev. 9:1–12).

Others who take this passage figuratively describe the smoke as heresy, or the obscuring of human civility and common decency. While Satan and his demons are behind these dark deeds, they do their work through human agents, who disguise themselves as ministers of righteousness (see 2 Cor. 11:13-15). Satan works tirelessly to blind the minds of unbelievers so they cannot see the light of the gospel (2 Cor. 4:3-4). His kingdom is darkness and his citizens follow him blindly. Like the smoke that ascends from the shaft of the abyss, false teachings obscure the light that reveals our sin and leads us to the truth of God’s Word. There is no doubt that the thick smoke rising up from the pit may accurately depict spiritual darkness.

There are some interpreters, however, who see the smoke as a literal judgment, rising up from the earth due to a volcano or an earthquake. Just as the plagues of Egypt impacted earthly elements – water, earth, vegetation and sky – the judgments of Revelation are God’s ways of using His fallen creation to illustrate the depths of human depravity, the heights of His holiness, and the severity of His wrath.

Warren Wiersbe comments: “Jesus compared hell to a furnace of fire (Matt. 13:42, 50), an image that ought to make people stop and think before they jest about it. The smoke polluted the air and darkened the sun, which had already been darkened when the fourth trumpet sounded” (The Bible Exposition Commentary, Rev. 9:1).

One final thought: The imagery of thick, dark smoke is used in several ways in the Old Testament to illustrate God’s dealings with sinful people. Smoke accompanies the judgment of Sodom and Gomorrah (Gen. 19:28). It attends God’s judgment of the nations (Isa. 34:10). And it envelopes the Lord on Mt. Sinai (Ex. 19:18). In each case, smoke is a visible manifestation of God’s power and divine purpose. He destroys wicked cities with fire and sulfur so the wicked can experience it and the righteous can witness it. He judges the nations in such a way that there can be no mistaking He is angry with sinners who rebel against Him and reject His gracious offer of forgiveness. And He delivers the law to His chosen people in such a way that they respond in terror to His holiness.

To the eye of the unbeliever, there may be no distinguishable difference between the smoke of the abyss and the smoke of Mt. Sinai. Smoke is smoke. But to the one who trusts in God’s Word, there is a distinct difference between the two. Satan uses darkness to hide his evil ways. The Lord uses it to reveal His wrath and keep sinful people from seeing Him directly, which would lead to their instant death (Ex. 33:20).

Next: Locusts came to the earth — Revelation 9:1-12

The key to the shaft of the abyss — Revelation 9:1-12

Previously: The fifth trumpet — Revelation 9:1-12

The scripture

Rev. 9:1 – The fifth angel blew his trumpet, and I saw a star that had fallen from heaven to earth. The key to the shaft of the abyss was given to him. 2He opened the shaft of the abyss, and smoke came up out of the shaft like smoke from a great furnace so that the sun and the air were darkened by the smoke from the shaft. 3Then out of the smoke locusts came to the earth, and power was given to them like the power that scorpions have on the earth. 4They were told not to harm the grass of the earth, or any green plant, or any tree, but only people who do not have God’s seal on their foreheads. 5They were not permitted to kill them, but were to torment [them] for five months; their torment is like the torment caused by a scorpion when it strikes a man. 6In those days people will seek death and will not find it; they will long to die, but death will flee from them.

  7The appearance of the locusts was like horses equipped for battle. On their heads were something like gold crowns; their faces were like men’s faces; 8they had hair like women’s hair; their teeth were like lions’ teeth; 9they had chests like iron breastplates; the sound of their wings was like the sound of chariots with many horses rushing into battle; 10and they had tails with stingers, like scorpions, so that with their tails they had the power to harm people for five months. 11They had as their king the angel of the abyss; his name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek he has the name Apollyon. 12The first woe has passed. There are still two more woes to come after this. (HCSB)

The key to the shaft of the abyss was given to him

This falling star is given the key to the shaft of the abyss. The word “abyss” appears 10 times in scripture (HCSB), seven of these times in Revelation. A survey of these passages helps us understand that the abyss is not hell but a place of temporary confinement:

  • Ps. 140:10 – David implores God concerning wicked and violent men who pursue him: “Let them be thrown into the fire, into the abyss, never again to rise.” This, no doubt, is a reference to the abode of the dead and is similar to the Hebrew Sheol.
  • Luke 8:31 – The demons cast out of the man called Legion beg Jesus “not to banish them to the abyss.” This appears to be a place of confinement for demons but not hell (Gehenna), which is their ultimate destiny.
  • Rom. 10:7 – Paul quotes Moses to make the point that Jesus is the end of the law for righteousness for everyone who believes, and that salvation is by faith. Citing Deut. 30:13, he writes, “‘Who will go down into the abyss?’ that is, to bring Christ up from the dead.” But in Deut. 30:13, Moses says, “Who will cross the sea, get it [the message of life] for us, and proclaim it to us so that we may follow it?” How do we reconcile Moses’ use of “sea” with Paul’s use of “abyss?” Just as Moses is making the point that God’s message of life is near to the people – “in your mouth and in your heart” (v. 14) – Paul is asserting that salvation has come to us through the resurrection of Christ. Paul’s use of “abyss” is similar to David’s in Ps. 140:10 to mean the abode of the dead, which Jesus evidently visited between His death and resurrection.
  • Rev. 9:1, 2, 11 – The term “abyss” is employed here to mean a place where demonic “locusts” are confined and over which Abaddon rules. More about these locusts later.
  • Rev. 11:7 – One called “the beast that comes up out of the abyss” makes war with two witnesses and slays them. This could be a reference to the Antichrist, who some commentators say rises from the dead, and therefore comes up out of the abode of the dead, or it could be a demon who comes out of confinement in the abyss to kill God’s servants.
  • Rev. 17:8 – The same beast of Rev. 11:7 is described as coming up from the “abyss” and ultimately headed for “destruction.”
  • One other note: Peter writes that “God didn’t spare the angels who sinned, but threw them down into Tartarus and delivered them to be kept in chains of darkness until judgment” (2 Peter 2:4). The Greek word translated Tartarus describes a subterranean place of confinement lower than Hades. It is a place where demons are confined. Possibly, Tartarus and the abyss are the same place, or at least related.

So, when we come upon the word “abyss,” it’s wise to consider the context. In some places, the word is used to describe the abode of the dead – similar to the Hebrew Sheol or the Greek Hades – and in other places, particularly in Revelation, it is used to depict a place, perhaps deep in the heart of the earth, where some demons and Satan are temporarily confined.

Abaddon is given the key to the shaft of the abyss. We are not told who gives him the key, but likely it is the Lord or a holy angel acting on the Lord’s behalf. If the abyss is a place of confinement for demons, it is the Lord who has banished them there and the Lord who must acquiesce to their temporary release. The “key” in scripture symbolizes authority. In Rev. 1:17-18 Jesus declares, “I am the First and the Last, and the Living One. I was dead, but look – I am alive forever and ever, and I hold the keys of death and Hades.” Since Jesus defeated Satan on the cross, it is quite likely He now holds the key to the abyss as well and grants the release of demons to bring judgment upon those who trample His blood beneath their feet.

Without apparent hesitation, Abaddon opens the shaft of the abyss. He chooses to unleash evil upon the earth in perfect harmony with God’s permission. What the king of the abyss intends for evil, the King of the universe plans for good – the judgment of the wicked and the glory of God’s holiness. It is like this throughout scripture. Joseph’s brothers sell him into slavery; years later, after he becomes second in command in Egypt and rescues his father and his brothers from starvation, he tells them, “You planned evil against me; God planned it for good to bring about the present result – the survival of many people” (Gen. 50:20). And the apostle Paul, tormented by a “messenger of Satan,” is prevented by that same messenger from sinning by exalting himself (2 Cor. 12:7). In fact, Paul discovers that God’s grace is sufficient for him, and he writes, “I am pleased in weaknesses, in insults, in catastrophes, in persecutions, and in pressures. For when I am weak, then I am strong” (v. 10).

Next: Smoke came up out of the shaft — Revelation 9:1-12

The fifth trumpet — Revelation 9:1-12

Previously: I heard an eagle — Revelation 8:12-13

The scripture

Rev. 9:1 – The fifth angel blew his trumpet, and I saw a star that had fallen from heaven to earth. The key to the shaft of the abyss was given to him. 2He opened the shaft of the abyss, and smoke came up out of the shaft like smoke from a great furnace so that the sun and the air were darkened by the smoke from the shaft. 3Then out of the smoke locusts came to the earth, and power was given to them like the power that scorpions have on the earth. 4They were told not to harm the grass of the earth, or any green plant, or any tree, but only people who do not have God’s seal on their foreheads. 5They were not permitted to kill them, but were to torment [them] for five months; their torment is like the torment caused by a scorpion when it strikes a man. 6In those days people will seek death and will not find it; they will long to die, but death will flee from them.

  7The appearance of the locusts was like horses equipped for battle. On their heads were something like gold crowns; their faces were like men’s faces; 8they had hair like women’s hair; their teeth were like lions’ teeth; 9they had chests like iron breastplates; the sound of their wings was like the sound of chariots with many horses rushing into battle; 10and they had tails with stingers, like scorpions, so that with their tails they had the power to harm people for five months. 11They had as their king the angel of the abyss; his name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in Greek he has the name Apollyon. 12The first woe has passed. There are still two more woes to come after this. (HCSB)

The fifth trumpet

As the angel sounds the fifth trumpet, he ushers in the first woe that the eagle warned about in verse 13 of the previous chapter. The severity of the judgments increases as the Lord changes the focus from natural objects – the earth, seas, fresh water and celestial bodies – to the wicked inhabitants of the earth.

The imagery in this judgment is graphic and horrifying. A “star” falls to earth and opens a door to a great abyss, releasing heavy smoke that darkens the light of the sun and freeing “locusts” who are empowered to torment the wicked for five months. These locusts wear crowns, have faces like men, hair like women, teeth like lions, and wings that produce a deafening noise. They wield tails that sting like scorpions. And they have a king: the angel of the abyss who is called Abaddon in Hebrew and Apollyon in Greek.

Are we to take this literally? Who is the “star” that falls from heaven to earth? What is the abyss, and where is it located? Who are these “locusts” that have human and animal features? And who is their king? Let’s dig in.

I saw a star that had fallen

As soon as the angel blows the fifth trumpet (shofar, or ram’s horn; see The first trumpet for more details), John sees “a star that had fallen from heaven to earth.” Clearly, this is not a celestial body for the star is called “he” and is given a key that opens the shaft of the abyss. Some commentators identify this star as Satan and connect the fifth trumpet with Rev. 12: “So the great dragon was thrown out – the ancient serpent, who is called the Devil and Satan, the one who deceives the whole world. He was thrown to earth, and his angels with him…. Therefore rejoice, O heavens, and you who dwell in them! Woe to the earth and the sea, for the Devil has come down to you with great fury, because he knows he has a short time (vv. 9, 12).”

Some of these interpreters compare these verses with Isa. 14:12: “Shining morning star [Lucifer], how you have fallen from the heavens! You destroyer of nations, you have been cut down to the ground.” However, connecting this verse to Satan is a stretch. It is based on the later Latin translation of “shining morning star” as Lucifer, or “light-bearer,” and likely is not what Isaiah intended. The prophet is referring to a real king – perhaps Merodach-baladan, the Babylonian king who makes a treaty with Judah’s King Hezekiah. The Babylonian ruler will die and be powerless in Sheol, the realm of deceased spirits. Calling the Babylonian ruler the “morning star” in Isaiah may have been a sarcastic reference to his arrogance.

Some also seek to draw a parallel between the fifth trumpet and Luke 10:18, in which Jesus, who welcomes the return of His disciples, says, “I watched Satan fall from heaven like a lightning flash.” But Jesus likely is speaking metaphorically, pointing out that the ministry of the disciples is an assault on Satan’s authority.

In any case, the passages in Revelation are the primary building blocks for the view that the “star” of the fifth trumpet is Satan, and his fall evidently came in the distant past since the scripture clearly tells us he “has fallen.” But there are other interpretations. Some commentators argue that the star is an angel, or a demon; angels frequently are depicted as falling stars in intertestamental Jewish apocalyptic literature. Others say he is a religious leader, perhaps the high priest who leads the nation of Israel into its final days of darkness before the destruction of the temple, or a heretical Christian leader who spreads false teachings throughout the church. Still others see the star as Muhammad, the founder of Islam, who leads successful campaigns against the Eastern Roman Empire in the 7th century. And then, others say the star in the fifth trumpet is the same as the star Wormwood in the third trumpet.

All things considered, it seems best to understand this star either as Satan or one of his demons.  While Satan has no authority in heaven – although he still has access to God’s throne and accuses us there – he retains authority over his earthly kingdom. But he does not have absolute power on earth and operates under the sovereign hand of Almighty God. He can do nothing to believers without God’s permission. Equally important, the Lord oversees the evil that Satan does and works it to the ultimate good. For example, the greatest evil in human history – the crucifixion of Christ – results in Satan’s defeat, our forgiveness, and the promise of new heavens and a new earth in which Satan, demons, unbelievers and sin play no part.

Abaddon and Apollyon

If the “star” in verse 1 is the same as the “angel of the abyss” in verse 11, it strengthens the argument that this is Satan or a demon. The Hebrew word Abaddon means destruction; it also is associated with the realm of the dead. The Greek name Apollyon means destroyer. While Satan is not specifically called “destroyer” in other passages of scripture, this name is consistent with other descriptions. He is called “the father of liars” (John 8:44); “accuser” (Rev. 12:10); “adversary” (1 Peter 5:8); “deceiver” (Rev. 12:9); “dragon” (Rev. 12:9); “Devil” (1 John 3:8); “Enemy” (Matt. 13:38); “evil one” (John 17:15); “murderer” (John 8:44); “roaring lion” (1 Peter 5:8); “Beelzebul, the ruler of the demons” (Luke 11:15); “ruler of this world” (John 12:31); “great dragon … ancient serpent” (Rev. 12:9); “tempter” (Matt. 4:3); and the “wicked/evil one” (Eph. 6:16).

Jesus refers to Satan’s minions as those who steal, kill and destroy (John 10:8), so perhaps that reflects on his character as a destroyer. But even if this is not Satan, it could be a powerful demon, one of the angels who fell with Satan. The description of the star as “fallen” would seem to indicate this is an evil being, for holy angels to do not fall from heaven but are sent by God.

This star, Abaddon, appears to have some authority over the abyss and the creatures confined within. In scripture we see demons possess territorial authority but it is never outside the sovereign authority of God.

Still, that leaves at least one burning question: If the wicked on earth belong to Satan and are citizens of his kingdom, why would Abaddon willingly unleash terrible torments upon them? This is not an easy question to answer, but one possible explanation is that Satan has no regard for anyone but himself. He does not reverence God, who created him. He battles constantly against the Lord’s holy angels. His demons possess and torment people with all kinds of illnesses and ailments. He has no interest in the welfare of human life. He enslaves people in sin. He knows the wicked spend eternity in hell yet does nothing to stop it. And, if he can destroy unbelievers before they repent of their sins and trust in Christ, he ensures that they spend eternity with him in outer darkness.

Fully grasping the evil inherent in the “evil one” may be beyond the pale of human understanding, but we see glimpses of it in human depravity. Why do some mothers kill their babies? Why do some husbands abuse their wives? Why do some family members plot against each other? Why do tyrants exterminate their fellow countrymen? Pure evil makes no sense except to evil people – and perhaps it makes no sense even to them. But lest we become too self-righteous in condemning evil in others, we should remind ourselves of this truth: “There is no one righteous, not even one; there is no one who understands, there is no one who seeks God” (Rom. 3:10). We should be grateful for God’s grace in us and trust His Spirit to overcome the evil we are still quite capable of doing.

Next: The key to the shaft of the abyss was given him (Rev. 9:1-12)