Tagged: doxology

Jude’s doxology

The Missouri Baptist Convention has published a new resource called The Last Apologist: A Commentary on Jude for Defenders of the Christian Faith. The 275-page book is available in print and Kindle editions on Amazon, and in print from the MBC. But we also want to make each of the 16 chapters available online. This post features the last half of Chapter 16: Doxology: To the Only God Our Savior.

Previously: To the Only God Our Savior



Now to Him who is able to protect you from stumbling and to make you stand in the presence of His glory, blameless and with great joy, to the only God our Savior, through Jesus Christ our Lord, be glory, majesty, power, and authority before all time, now, and forever. Amen. (Jude 24-25 HCSB)

Jude ends his epistle with a wonderful four-part doxology, or word of praise. To “the only God our Savior, through Jesus Christ our Lord,” Jude offers:

Glory– the sum total of all that God is and does. The word “glory” captures all the divine attributes in their radiance. The Greek word doxa, from which we get “glory,” means honor; renown; an especially divine quality; the unspoken manifestation of God; splendor. We see this in Yahweh in the Old Testament. In the desert, the Lord provides a place in the crevice of a rock for Moses, and covers His servant with His hand to protect him from the certain death that results when sinful humans see God’s glorious face (Ex. 33:20-23).

Such glory belongs only to God (Isa. 42:8; 48:11). However, in the New Testament, we see divine glory as an attribute of Jesus – an attribute He shared with the Father before the creation of the world (John 17:5). On the Mount of Transfiguration, Jesus shows Peter, James, and John his glory. His face shines like the sun, and even His clothes become as white as light (Matt. 17:1-8). The writer of Hebrews notes this about Jesus, “He is the radiance of His [God’s] glory, the exact expression of His nature …” (Heb. 1:3a).
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I heard every creature (Rev. 5:13-14)

Previously: The Lamb is worthy (Rev. 5:12)

The scripture

Rev. 5:13 – I heard every creature in heaven, on earth, under the earth, on the sea, and everything in them say: Blessing and honor and glory and dominion to the One seated on the throne, and to the Lamb, forever and ever! 14The four living creatures said, ‘Amen,’ and the elders fell down and worshiped (HCSB).

We have seen the 24 elders (who likely represent redeemed humanity) sing a new song about the worthiness of the slaughtered Lamb, and we have listened to the crescendo of the countless angels joining the elders and living creatures proclaim the Lamb’s worthiness to receive seven-fold tribute. Now, all of creation – “every creature in heaven, on earth, under the earth, on the sea, and everything in them” – joins in a chorus of praise to the Father and the Son. But really, every creature?

Every creature

John records hearing “every creature” offer a four-fold doxology – blessing, honor, glory and dominion – to God the Father and the Lamb. We know that one day “at the name of Jesus every knee should bow – of those who are in heaven and on earth and under the earth – and every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father” (Phil. 2:10-11). Generally, we conclude from this passage that all humans one day will acknowledge Jesus as Creator, Savior and Lord – even those who have gone to their graves rejecting Him and bound for eternity in hell. There seems to be no reason to include animals in this activity since they do not sin, have eternal spirits or need a Savior. Some animals don’t even have knees, let alone reasoning capabilities or voices. So, does every creature really have a stake in honoring the Lamb?

In a sense, yes. If it’s possible for the heavens to declare the glory of God, and for the sky to proclaim the work of His hands (Ps. 19:1), then the animal kingdom can demonstrate the Creator’s power and goodness in myriad ways. The humming bird can generate a vibrant baritone with its wings; the humpback whale, an awe-inspiring spin as it emerges from the ocean depths; the hawk, a piercing cry as it hovers in the updrafts. In ways we have yet to discover, the creatures of the earth, sky and sea pay fitting homage to God, who is “the Maker of heaven and earth, the sea and everything in them” (Ps. 146:6). As David wrote in Ps. 145:21, “My mouth will declare the Lord’s praise; let every living thing praise His holy name forever and ever.” And as the Psalmist implores in Ps. 150:6, “Let everything that breathes praise the Lord.”

We can identify the creatures in heaven because John sees them: redeemed people, angels, and living creatures (perhaps cherubim and/or seraphim). And we may conclude that the creatures “on earth” include those that fly, while the creatures on the sea include those in fresh and salty waters. But who are the creatures “under the earth?” Likely, this is a reference to departed spirits in Hades: unbelievers of all time awaiting resurrection and final judgment, and perhaps Old Testament saints, although scholars disagree as to whether believers under the Old Covenant were taken to heaven after Jesus’ resurrection. In any case, there is united and universal agreement that the Father and His Son are worthy to receive blessing, honor, glory and dominion.

Matthew Henry comments: “The whole creation fares the better for Christ. By him all things consist; and all the creatures, had they sense and language, would adore that great Redeemer who delivers the creature from that bondage under which it groans, through the corruption of men, and the just curse denounced by the great God upon the fall” (Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible: Complete and Unabridged in One Volume, Re 5:6–14).

Next: Blessing, honor, glory and dominion