Tagged: Asia Minor

To the church at Laodicea

Read an introduction to the seven churches of Revelation 2-3

This is the seventh in a series of commentaries on Christ’s letters to the seven churches of Asia Minor. Read about Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis and Philadelphia.

The wealthy city of Laodicea lies 40 miles southeast of Philadelphia on the road to Colossae. The city was destroyed by an earthquake in 62 A.D. and rebuilt by its wealthy citizens without the help of the state. Laodicea is a banking center and a producer of glossy black wool from which clothes and carpets are fashioned. The city also is host to a famous medical school that produces a salve for treating ailments of the eye. A massive wall rings the city. Three marble theaters are located here and, like Rome, Laodicea is built on seven hills. There is no evidence that Paul ever visited the city, but he expresses great interest in it (Col. 2:1-2; 4:16). The city’s water supply originates in hot springs six miles away at Denizli. In its travels through the aqueduct to Laodicea, the water becomes tepid, providing a fitting backdrop for Christ’s letter to the church here, which lays claim to being the most notorious of the seven churches in Asia Minor.

Christ’s self-description

Jesus calls Himself “The Amen” (v. 14). This word appears nine times in Revelation and numerous times in other Scriptures, but this is the only time it is used as a title or name. It is a Hebrew expression of strong affirmation meaning “so be it.” More than 20 times in John’s Gospel Jesus prefaces His remarks with the words, “Amen, amen.” Paul writes of Jesus, “For every one of God’s promises is ‘Yes’ in Him. Therefore the ‘Amen’ is also through Him for God’s glory through us” (2 Cor. 1:20). As the Amen, Jesus speaks and His words are as true as His divine nature; what He speaks always comes to pass.

He also identifies Himself as “the faithful and true witness” and “the Originator of God’s creation” (v. 14). Drawing from John’s description of Him as “the faithful witness” (Rev. 1:5), Jesus emphasizes not only that He speaks the truth but that He is the truth (John 14:6). The name “the Originator of God’s creation” in no way implies that Jesus is a created being or came into existence at any time. The Greek word translated “Originator” or “Beginning” is arche, which carries the idea of “active cause.” Paul instructed the Colossian church to share his letter with the church at Laodicea. If his instructions were obeyed, then believers in Laodicea would have been familiar with Paul’s description of Christ as Creator: “He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn [Greek prototokos, pre-eminent; not protoktisis, first-created] over all creation; because by Him everything was created … all things have been created through Him and for Him” (Col. 1:15-16).

Christ’s evaluation of the church’s condition

As with Sardis, Jesus has no words of commendation for the church at Laodicea. “I know your works,” He says, “that you are neither cold nor hot. I wish that you were cold or hot” (v. 15). Just as water from the hot springs in Hierapolis turns lukewarm by the time it reaches Laodicea, the church has lost its zeal for God and is simply going through the motions, like water running through an aqueduct. Jesus’ wish that the Laodicean believers be either hot (literally “boiling”) or icy cold is intriguing. Why would our Savior actually find coldness less offensive than lukewarmness? Steve Gregg writes, “Perhaps we should not find this too surprising. Those who zealously oppose Christ (cold), and those who zealously serve Him (hot), have one thing in common: they both take Him seriously. The one who neither opposes nor serves offers Christ the ultimate insult – affirming His existence, but not taking Him seriously” (Revelation: Four Views, p. 79).

Jamieson, Fausset and Brown offer further insight: “[T]here is more hope of the ‘cold,’ that is, those who are of the world, and not yet warmed by the Gospel call; for, when called, they may become hot and fervent Christians: such did the once-cold publicans, Zaccheus and Matthew, become. But the lukewarm has been brought within reach of the holy fire, without being heated by it into fervor: having religion enough to lull the conscience in false security, but not religion enough to save the soul” (A Commentary, Critical and Explanatory, on the Old and New Testaments, Re 3:15).

“So,” Jesus says, “because you are lukewarm, and neither hot nor cold, I am going to vomit you out of My mouth” (v. 16). The word “vomit” also may be translated “spew” or “spit.” Just as lukewarm water turns the stomach – physicians have been known to use it to induce vomiting – a church that’s indifferent to Christ is nauseating to the One who gave Himself for it. There seems little hope that the church at Laodicea will change. While Jesus has not yet brought judgment against those who profess His name, He assures them He is “going to” do so. The Lord knows the beginning from the end, and He knows what decisions we will make, whether to serve Him as Lord or grow cozy in self-satisfaction. Yet the decision and its consequences lie with us.

Next, Jesus contrasts Laodicea’s self-image with reality. The church says, “I’m rich; I have become wealthy, and need nothing” (v. 17a). Since the city itself is financially secure, the church no doubt has significant resources at its disposal. We can suppose that it meets in a comfortable and modern facility, pays its staff well, supports a wide array of programs, contributes to many civic and charitable organizations, and carries no debt. It is conceivable that other churches are coming to Laodicea for financial assistance. The church – it needs nothing. Or so it claims. But Jesus has a far different, and far more accurate, appraisal. He tells them, “you don’t know that you are wretched, pitiful, poor, blind, and naked” (v. 17b).

It is revealing that Jesus tells His people they “don’t know” their true condition. Like the pale and gaunt woman with an eating disorder who looks in the mirror and sees only an overweight body, the church at Laodicea sees itself as robust when in fact it is spiritually on its last legs.

The words “wretched, pitiful, poor” describe a church in the throes of spiritual bankruptcy, without the strength or the good sense to extend a hand and ask God for help. The church also is “blind,” Jesus says, a term often used in scripture to depict spiritual darkness. The apostle Peter teaches that when Christians are not growing spiritually, it affects their vision. He calls such Christians “blind and shortsighted” (see 2 Peter 1:5-9). If they have any advantage at all, it is over unbelievers, whom Paul describes as “blinded” by the “god of this age,” so that the light of the gospel is hidden from them (2 Cor. 4:3-4). Finally, the Laodiceans are “naked,” a reality quite difficult to grasp in a city known for its fine linen. Like the emperor who has no clothes, the Christians in this city are aloof to their spiritual shame, preferring to believe the flattery of their countrymen rather than the facts from their Savior. “Let us daily beg of God that we may not be left to flatter and deceive ourselves in the concerns of our souls,” writes Matthew Henry (Re 3:14-22).

Christ’s comfort and/or commands

Jesus has the antidotes for all of Laodicea’s ills. “I advise you to buy of Me gold refined in the fire so that you may be rich,” He says (v. 18a). The refined gold implies character that has been refined through affliction. Job tells his friends, “He [God] knows the way I have taken; when He has tested me, I will emerge as pure gold” (Job 23:10). And Peter comforts persecuted Christians with these words, “You rejoice in this, though now for a short time you have had to be distressed by various trials so that the genuineness of your faith – more valuable than gold, which perishes though refined by fire – may result in praise, glory, and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ” (1 Peter 1:6-7).

Next, Jesus tells them to buy “white clothes so that you may be dressed and your shameful nakedness not be exposed” (v. 18b). Although they could go to the market and buy fine black woolen linens, Jesus urges them to prefer white garments, which in Rev. 19:8 represent “the righteous acts of the saints.”

Finally, Jesus exhorts them to buy “ointment to spread on your eyes so that you may see” (v. 18c). The city’s famous eye salve would not remedy the church’s spiritual blindness. But Jesus, who opened the eyes of the blind on many occasions, would gladly restore the church’s spiritual eyesight.

Note that in each case, Jesus instructs the church to “buy” these antidotes. How can a spiritually impoverished church do this? In the same way God’s spiritually thirsty people in Isaiah’s day are instructed to receive divine help: “Come, everyone who is thirsty, come to the waters; and you without money, come, buy, and eat! Come, buy wine and milk without money and without cost!” (Isa. 55:1). Believers are sometimes deceived into thinking they can work their way out of a spiritual drought. If they would just keep going, keep working, keep doing the things they’ve always done, then the Lord will take notice and restore the joy of their salvation. King David knew it could never be this way. Broken beneath the weight of his sins with Bathsheba (with whom he committed adultery) and Uriah (whom he had ordered killed), the king simply acknowledge that if there is any remedy for his sin, it must come from God: “Restore the joy of Your salvation to me, and give me a willing spirit” (Ps. 51:12). Jesus has already bought our spiritual health through His finished work on the cross. We trample His blood beneath our feet when we think our good works are of any value to cancel sin in God’s economy.

While there is not a word of commendation in this letter, Jesus reminds us of His abiding love of the church. “As many as I love, I rebuke and discipline,” He says. “So be committed and repent” (v. 19). The word “committed” is translated “zealous” in some translations. The church at Laodicea has not been “hot” (Gr. zestos), so she is urged to be “zealous” (Gr. zeleue). Both words are derived from the same Greek verb zeo, which means “to boil.” Like a loving father, Jesus lifts His voice in chastisement before He raises His arm in judgment. Proverbs 3:11-12 reads: “Do not despise the Lord’s instruction, my son, and do not loathe His discipline. For the Lord disciplines the one He loves, just as a father, the son he delights in.” Those who heed Christ’s call and repent will again enjoy intimate fellowship with their Savior. Those who stand in self-sufficiency, stiff-necked and aloof, will find they stand alone.

Christ’s urge to listen

Jesus ends this letter with the same words He has offered to the previous six churches: “Anyone who has an ear should listen to what the Spirit says to the churches” (v. 22). But He prefaces these remarks with an invitation found only in the letter to the Laodiceans.  “Listen!” He says, “I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears My voice and opens the door, I will come in to him and have dinner with him, and he with Me” (v. 20). We often use these words to urge unbelievers toward faith in Christ. But Jesus is speaking to Christians here – not the entire church at Laodicea, for no doubt many professing Christians are not the Lord’s at all, but to any individual Christian who desires fellowship with Him. The ESV Study Bible puts it this way: “I stand at the door and knock, not as a homeless transient seeking shelter but as the master of the house, expecting alert servants to respond immediately to his signal and welcome his entrance (Luke 12:35-36; James 5:9). To the one who opens the door, Christ will come in and will eat with him, a picture of close personal fellowship.”

Christ’s promises to the victor

Jesus says, “The victor: I will give him the right to sit with Me on My throne, just as I also won the victory and sat down with My Father on His throne” (v. 21). The same Christ who threatens to vomit the unfaithful out of His mouth now offers them a seat on His throne. The highest place is within reach of the lowliest sinner by the grace of God. Take note that Jesus has met the same temptations facing the Laodiceans, and many more, yet emerges victoriously and in so doing becomes our great high priest (Heb. 4:15-16).

Matthew Henry writes: “[T]hose who are conformed to Christ in his trials and victories shall be conformed to him in his glory; they shall sit down with him on his throne, on his throne of judgment at the end of the world, on his throne of glory to all eternity, shining in his beams by virtue of their union with him and relation to him, as the mystical body of which he is the head” (Re 3:14-22).

Lastly, Jesus’ promise to give the victor the right to sit with Him on His throne implies a delegation of His ruling authority, which is taught elsewhere in scripture:

  • In the parable of the 10 minas, Jesus says, “Well done, good slave … Because you have been faithful in a very small matter, have authority over 10 towns” (Luke 19:17)
  • Paul writes to the Corinthians, “Do you not know that we will judge angels – not to speak of things pertaining to this life” (1 Cor. 6:3)?
  • And in Rev. 20:4, John writes, “Then I saw thrones, and people seated on them who were given authority to judge …”

Premillennialists also see this as a promise that believers will reign with Christ in the millennium. In any case, the believer’s victory is Christ’s victory; without His finished work on the cross there would be one common eternal destiny for all people – hell – and the only victory would be the vindication of God’s holiness in judgment. Believers do well to echo the words of Paul, quoting the prophets Isaiah and Hosea: “Death has been swallowed up in victory. O Death, where is your victory? O Death, where is your sting? Now the sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ” (1 Cor. 15:54b-57).

To the church at Philadelphia

Read an introduction to the seven churches of Revelation 2-3

This is the sixth in a series of commentaries on Christ’s letters to the seven churches of Asia Minor. Read about Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, and Sardis.

Twenty-eight miles southeast of Sardis is Philadelphia, built by King Attalus Philadelphus of Pergamum. “Philadelphus” is similar to the Greek word philadelphia, meaning brotherly love, which occurs seven times in the New Testament. Known for its agricultural products, Philadelphia also is situated on a geological fault and therefore prone to earthquakes. In 17 B.C. a major earthquake destroyed Philadelphia, Sardis and 10 other cities. Its location is crucial, however, as it sits on a main route from Rome to the East and therefore is called “the gateway to the East.” It also is known as “little Athens” because of its many pagan temples.

The city hosts one of only two churches – the other being Smyrna – for which Christ has nothing but unvarnished praise. While the city’s good name preceded the church, the believers in Philadelphia no doubt enhance its reputation because of their love of Christ and love for one another. “But it is not enough to love God and our fellow believers; we must also love a lost world and seek to reach unbelievers with the Good News of the Cross,” writes Warren Wiersbe. “This church had a vision to reach a lost world, and God set before them an open door” (The Bible Exposition Commentary, Rev. 3:7).

Christ’s self-description

Jesus identifies Himself as “The Holy One, the True One, the One who has the key of David, who opens and no one will close, and closes and no one opens” (v. 7).  His declaration of holiness is a claim to deity, which the faithful saints in Philadelphia celebrate in contrast to the city’s numerous pagan gods. The “True One” undergirds this audacious claim to being, not just a deity, but the one true and living God to the exclusion of all others. The name also corresponds to Rev. 1:5, where Jesus is described as “the faithful witness.” In the words “the One who has the key of David,” Jesus tells us He has the authority as Messiah to open and close doors of ministry. He also has the keys of death and Hades (1:18) and ultimately tosses both into the lake of fire (Rev. 20:14). In the New Testament, an “open door” is an opportunity for the gospel’s advance (Acts 14:27; 1 Cor. 16:9; 2 Cor. 2:12; Col. 4:3). As the Head of the church, Jesus determines when and where the gospel will be effective (see Acts 16:6-10).

As the One who holds the key of David, Jesus is the antitype of Eliakim, to whom the key, the emblem of authority over the house of David, is given in Isa. 22:15-25. Taken away from Shebna, who is unfaithful and therefore unworthy, the key is given to Eliakim. In much the same way, Jesus takes authority over His people – indeed over the whole earth – because He alone is worthy to receive all authority from the Father (Matt. 28:18)..

Christ’s evaluation of the church’s condition

Jesus says, “I know your works” in the midst of limited strength. The believers in Philadelphia have “kept My word,” “not denied My name,” and “kept My command to endure” (vv. 8, 10). This is perhaps a reference to some particular unnamed trial in which the faithful, with little strength and few resources of their own, have found comfort in the words of Jesus to Paul, “My grace is sufficient for you, for power is perfected in weakness” (2 Cor. 12:9). Matthew Henry suggests that Jesus’ commendation is laced with a mild rebuke in the words “Because you have limited strength” (v. 8). Henry writes, “[T]hough Christ accepts a little strength, yet believers should not rest satisfied in a little, but should strive to grow in grace, to be strong in faith, giving glory to God. True grace, though weak, will do more than the greatest gifts or highest degrees of common grace, for it will enable the Christian to keep the word of Christ, and not to deny his name. Obedience, fidelity, and a free confession of the name of Christ, are the fruits of true grace, and are pleasing to Christ as such.” Other commentators see no hint of rebuke whatsoever in Christ’s words. Rather, they see Jesus praising the believers in Philadelphia for leveraging what little measure of faith they’ve been given. The apostle Paul tells us not everyone has the same capacity for faith in God (Rom. 12:3).

There appear to be two obstacles for the church in Philadelphia. The first is a lack of strength; evidently the church is neither large nor strong. Second, the church faces opposition from unbelieving Jews in Philadelphia. Jewish Christians perhaps are banned from the synagogue in the city. In addition, since Satan is “the father of liars” (John 8:44), believers in Philadelphia no doubt are the targets of slander and false accusations hatched from the “synagogue of Satan” (v. 9). Warren Wiersbe writes, “Unbelief sees the obstacles, but faith sees the opportunities! And since the Lord holds the keys, He is in control of the outcome!” (Re 3:7).

Christ’s comfort and/or commands

Jesus offers three promises to the church: an open door, deliverance from enemies, and protection from an approaching time of trouble. As mentioned earlier, the New Testament uses the concept of an open door as an opportunity for ministry. Peter rightly opens the gospel door to the Gentiles (Acts 10:1-48), then wrongly tries to close it in part through hypocrisy in Antioch (Gal. 2:11-18). Paul on several occasions refers to an open door of ministry:

  • “But I will stay in Ephesus until Pentecost, because a wide door for effective ministry has opened for me …” (1 Cor. 16:8-9a).
  • “When I came to Troas for the gospel of Christ, a door was opened to me by the Lord” (2 Cor. 2:12).
  • “At the same time, pray also for us that God may open a door to us for the message, to speak the mystery of the Messiah – for which I am in prison – so that I may reveal it as I am required to speak” (Col. 4:3).

It is clear that the Lord (referred to as Christ, the Holy Spirit or God) opens these doors of opportunity – and at times closes them. Luke records, for example, that the Holy Spirit prevents Paul and Timothy from speaking the gospel message in the province of Asia while empowering them to speak in the regions of Phrygia and Galatia. When they come to Mysia, the missionaries try to go into Bithynia but the “Spirit of Jesus” prevents them. Paul then has a vision in which he receives the Macedonian call and immediately sets sail, concluding that “God” has called him to evangelize there (Acts 16:6-10).

Jesus’ second promise to the church at Philadelphia is deliverance from its enemies: “Take note! I will make those from the synagogue of Satan, who claim to be Jews and are not, but are lying – note this – I will make them come and bow down at your feet, and they will know that I have loved you” (Rev. 3:9). Matthew Henry notes, “Observe, First, The greatest honour and happiness any church can enjoy consist in the peculiar love and favour of Christ. Secondly, Christ can discover this his favour to his people in such a manner that their very enemies shall see it, and be forced to acknowledge it. Thirdly, This will, by the grace of Christ, soften the hearts of their enemies, and make them desirous to be admitted into communion with them” (Rev. 3:7-13). The promise to Philadelphia is greater than the Lord’s promise to Smyrna. Jesus tells the believers in Smyrna they will suffer at the hands of those in the “synagogue of Satan,” but He indicates to the faithful in Philadelphia that some of the Jews ultimately will turn in faith to Christ. At what point will the unbelieving Jews bow down at the Philadelphians’ feet? Perhaps when they are glorified and enthroned with Jesus, at which time every knee will bow and every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord (Phil. 2:10-11).

The third promise of Jesus is deliverance from “the hour of testing that is going to come over the whole world to test those who live on the earth” (Rev. 3:10). What is this hour of testing? And does it impact the entire earth or simply the known world of John’s day? Futurist scholars believe the “hour of testing” is the coming global tribulation. If so, Jesus’ message should comfort believers that we will not have to endure these unprecedented dark days. Preterists argue that a crisis affecting the Roman Empire satisfies the terminology of verse 10 since the term “the whole world” is used to designate the empire in Luke 2:1 and elsewhere. Since they place the writing of the Book of Revelation prior to 70 A.D., they say the “hour of testing” is the death of Nero in 68 A.D. and the civil wars that follow, along with the quelling of the Jewish rebellion, destruction of the temple, and scattering of the Jews in 70 A.D. Still others, such as idealists, say the time of trial is generic and applies to Christians who suffer throughout the church age. It is difficult to know with certainty which of these interpretations is correct – if any of them. However, Jesus’ promise must have meant something to the first-century believers in Philadelphia, even if there is a further fulfillment in later times.

Warren Wiersbe offers this view: “This is surely a reference to the time of Tribulation that John described in Revelation 6–19, ‘the time of Jacob’s trouble.’ This is not speaking about some local trial, because it involves ‘them that dwell on the earth’ (see Rev. 6:10; 8:13; 11:10; 12:12; 13:8, 12, 14; 14:6; 17:2, 8). The immediate reference would be to the official Roman persecutions that would come, but the ultimate reference is to the Tribulation that will encompass the earth before Jesus Christ returns to establish His kingdom. In many Bible scholars’ understanding, Revelation 3:10 is a promise that the church will not go through the Tribulation, but will be taken to heaven before it begins (see 1 Thes. 4:13–5:11). The admonition, ‘Behold, I come quickly,’ would strengthen this view” (Re 3:7).

Finally, Jesus exhorts His followers, “Hold on to what you have, so that no one takes your crown” (v.  11). What do believers in Philadelphia have? Limited strength that compels them to trust God, faith in God’s promises, faithfulness to His name, and endurance in persecution. By the world’s standards, these are puny resources. But entrusted to God’s hands they are powerful weapons for waging spiritual battle, and believers who employ them will earn rewards (crowns) for faithful service. While a crown may be taken away, a believer’s salvation cannot. We should not conclude that Jesus is threatening to undo His finished work on the cross if the church in Philadelphia stumbles. On the contrary, He returns as a Lamb slain, bearing the marks of His crucifixion, and bringing His reward with Him.

Christ’s urge to listen

Jesus ends this letter with the familiar invitation: “Anyone who has an ear should listen to what the Spirit says to the churches.” It is not a church’s membership roll, staff size, budget or programs that determine its greatness; rather, it is the degree to which it is ready – by faith in Christ and faithfulness to Him – to walk through an open door of ministry. In the Lord’s economy, some of the greatest churches are the smallest, poorest, and most obscure.

Christ’s promises to the victor

Jesus says, “The victor: I will make him a pillar in the sanctuary of My God, and he will never go out again. I will write on him the name of My God, and the name of the city of My God – the new Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from My God – and My new name” (v. 12). Ancient cities often honor great leaders by erecting pillars with their names inscribed. Pagan temples boast majestic pillars, as does the temple in Jerusalem. But Jesus has something far greater in mind. He tells the faithful in Philadelphia that He will make them pillars in the heavenly sanctuary and write God the Father’s name upon them, along with the name of the New Jerusalem, and His own new name. Matthew Henry adds: “On this pillar shall be recorded all the services the believer did to the church of God, how he asserted her rights, enlarged her borders, maintained her purity and honour; this will be a greater name than Asiaticus, or Africanus; a soldier under God in the wars of the church” (Re 3:7-13). And unlike the pillars of the temple in Jerusalem, which fell to the Romans, or the pillars of the pagan temple in Philadelphia that crumbled in an earthquake, the heavenly pillars will stand for eternity as a testimony to great men and women of faith – and to a greater Savior.

One final issue should be addressed: Why does Jesus refer to “My God” four times in verse 12? Is He denying His own deity? Quite the contrary. Jesus is expressing His intimacy with the Father and His unity of purpose with the Godhead. It is true that on the cross Jesus cries out, “My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?” (Matt. 27:46) Some argue from this that Jesus is not divine – a weak argument that collapses beneath the weight of Jesus’ own claims to the contrary (John 8:58 and 10:30, for example). Others more accurately observe that He is crying out in His humanity to the Father while experiencing the full weight of God’s wrath for mankind’s sin. Jesus does in fact became sin for us on the cross (2 Cor. 5:21) and bears the penalty of our sins (Rom. 5:8). Yet even during those dark moments before His physical death, when He experiences spiritual death as our substitute, He never ceases to be the eternal Son of God. When faced with challenges like the four-fold use of “My God” in Rev. 3:12, we do well to see these verses in the light of clear Scripture. There is no doubt Jesus is the second person of the Trinity and has never laid His deity aside.

To the church at Sardis

Read an introduction to the seven churches of Revelation 2-3

This is the fifth in a series of commentaries on Christ’s letters to the seven churches of Asia Minor. Read about Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum and Thyatira.

Sardis is located 30 miles southeast of Thyatira and is an important commercial city situated on a major east-west trade route. Key goods produced there include jewelry, dye and textiles. From a religious perspective, Sardis is a pagan city with a temple to Artemis, the ruins of which still remain. Archaeologists also have located the ruins of a small Christian church building next to the temple.

Sardis is said to be the chief city of Asia Minor in John’s day and perhaps the first city in that part of the world converted to the preaching of John. It also may have been the first city there to abandon Christianity and come to ruin. Christ’s stern message is not completely in vain, however, for we know of the second-century bishop Melito who distinguishes himself with piety and learning. Even so, the local church does not endure, nor does the city; only a village called Sart remains today among the ruins.

Christ’s self-description: Jesus identifies Himself as “The One who has the seven spirits of God and the seven stars” (v. 2). The seven stars, of course, are the angels of the seven churches featured in Rev. 2-3. The phrase “seven spirits” ties back to Rev. 1:4 and may be translated there “the seven-fold Spirit,” likely a reference to the Holy Spirit. However, in this passage, since Jesus describes Himself as having the seven spirits, He may be reminding the church of His place in the Godhead and His authority as One who has all the fullness of the Spirit (see Isa. 11:2-5; Rev. 5:6). The number seven represents fullness or completeness; it is the number of God. And since there are seven churches and seven angels, Jesus may be telling the churches He has equipped each of them with the Holy Spirit for ministry and thus accepts no excuses for their failure to bear fruit. In other places in Revelation, the seven-fold Spirit of God is pictured as seven burning lamps (4:5) and seven all-seeing eyes (5:6).

Christ’s evaluation of the church’s condition: Jesus has no words of commendation for the church. There is no mention of endurance, faithfulness, suffering, or persecution. Warren Wiersbe comments, “There was reputation without reality, form without force. Like the city itself, the church at Sardis gloried in past splendor, but ignored present decay” (The Bible Exposition Commentary, Rev. 3:1).

“I know your works,” Jesus says, but He mentions none. “[Y]ou have a reputation for being alive, but you are dead” (v. 2). The word “reputation” may be translated “name.” The church in Sardis is not obscure. It is not unimportant to the community. Quite the contrary, the people of Sardis – and perhaps other church members throughout of Asia Minor – speak highly of the church. Its name is known. Its star is rising. Its reputation is flourishing. Things are happening at this church – or so the people say. But Jesus has another view altogether.

Evidently there is no opposition to the church in Sardis because the church is not preaching the cross, which is an offense to the unbelieving world (Gal. 5:11). Instead, the pagans of Sardis see Christians as nice, respectable people – neither dangerous nor desirable. The “dead” church – with the Spirit suppressed and the Word of God watered down – is no threat to Satan’s kingdom and therefore is perfectly acceptable to a world filled with religion. The apostle Paul warns us to avoid believers who embody the reputation of Sardis, holding to a form of religion but denying its power (2 Tim. 3:5).

Christ’s comfort and/or commands: “Be alert and strengthen what remains, which is about to die,” Jesus says, “for I have not found your works complete before My God” (v. 2b). Twice in the history of Sardis – a nearly impregnable fortress 1,500 feet above the main roads – the citadel has been captured, each time because the city’s sentries failed to keep watch. Jesus tells the sentries of the church, its leaders, to wake up and guard what remains. In other words, there is still hope of resuscitation for this dead church. Matthew Henry writes, “Whenever we are off our watch, we lose ground, and therefore must return to our watchfulness against sin, and Satan, and whatever is destructive to the life and power of godliness.”

What does Jesus mean when He says to “strengthen [or guard] what remains?” Some commentators see this as a reference to believers who are holding fast to their faith, while others argue that Jesus is pointing to their practices because He says, “I have not found your works complete.” Evidently “there is something wanting in them; there is the shell, but not the kernel; there is the carcass, but not the soul – the shadow, but not the substance” (Matthew Henry). Jesus offers three commands to the church: “Remember therefore what you have received and heard; keep it, and repent” (v. 3). Believers are to remember the finished work of Christ, proclaimed through preaching and sound doctrine. They are to keep these teachings as they partake of the ordinances of the church – the Lord’s Supper and baptism. And they are to repent of their lethargy with respect to Christian service. If they disregard the Lord’s commands, He will come “like a thief” and bring swift judgment upon them.

Jesus warns the church at Ephesus He will come and remove its lampstand. He tells the church at Pergamum He will fight against the Nicolaitans with the sword of His mouth. And he tells the church at Thyatira He will wreak havoc on the false prophetess Jezebel and her followers. But for Sardis, the lofty and secure fortress, He will come in stealth when their watchmen are drowsy, and bring swift and sudden judgment. Numerous times before, Jesus warned of His second coming as a surprise (see Matt. 24:42-43; Luke 12:39-40), and the apostles picked up on this message (see 1 Thess. 5:2,4,6; 2 Peter 3:10). But in the case of Sardis, it appears Jesus is speaking of temporal judgment that will come swiftly, perhaps well in advance of His personal, physical, and glorious return to earth. There is a Greek proverb that says “the feet of the avenging deities are shod with wool,” depicting their noiseless approach in judgment. How much more will Christ’s coming be like that of a thief in the night.

Even so, Jesus says, “you have a few people in Sardis who have not defiled their clothes, and they will walk with Me in white, because they are worthy” (v. 4). Candidates for Christian baptism in the ancient church wore white robes as a symbol of the imputed righteousness of Christ. Some at Sardis no doubt have remained faithful since that initiatory rite, and for them the Lord promises His intimate presence. Paul writes in Eph. 5:27 that Jesus gave Himself for the church “to present the church to Himself in splendor, without spot or wrinkle or any such thing, but holy and blameless.” And in Rev. 19:8 we see the church depicted as a bride, “permitted to wear fine linen, bright and pure. For the fine linen represents the righteous acts of the saints.” On earth, believers are declared righteous, or justified; in heaven, they are made righteous, or glorified. In either case, their white robes depict the righteousness of Christ.

Christ’s urge to listen: Jesus repeats the familiar charge in verse 6: “Anyone who has an ear should listen to what the Spirit says to the churches.” Many churches today are in trouble, not because they fiercely reject sound doctrine or practice open rebellion against the Lord, but because they inadvertently allow false teachings and ungodly practices to creep in. The end result is the same, however: dead churches admired by the world and religious institutions alike but loathed by God. “Wake yourself, wake yourself up!” Isaiah cries to his fellow countrymen on the brink of judgment. “These two things have happened to you: devastation and destruction, famine and sword. Who will grieve for you? How can I comfort you? Your children have fainted; they lie at the head of every street like an antelope in a net. They are full of the Lord’s fury, the rebuke of your God” (Isa. 51:17a, 19-20). The apostle Paul, possibly quoting an early Christian hymn based on passages in Isaiah, writes to the church, “Get up, sleeper, and rise up from the dead, and the Messiah will shine on you” (Eph. 5:14).

Christ’s promises to the victor: Jesus says “the victor will be dressed in white clothes, and I will never erase his name from the book of life, but will acknowledge his name before My Father and before His angels” (v. 5). Matthew Henry writes, “Christ will not blot the names of his chosen and faithful ones out of this book of life; men may be enrolled in the registers of the church, as baptized, as making a profession, as having a name to live, and that name may come to be blotted out of the roll, when it appears that it was but a name, a name to live, without spiritual life; such often lose the very name before they die, they are left of God to blot out their own names by their gross and open wickedness. But the names of those that overcome shall never be blotted out.”

John refers six times in Revelation to the book of life, sometimes called the Lamb’s book of life. Some commentators distinguish the two by stating that the book of life is God’s list of all human beings and that the lost are blotted out of this book, while the Lamb’s book of life features only the elect; therefore, at the end of time both sets of books are in perfect agreement. Yet John seems to use the terms “book of life” and “Lamb’s book of life” interchangeably. This is not to say that Christians may lose their salvation through grievous sin, for the Bible clearly teaches eternal security – a doctrine John emphasizes in his writings (for example, John 5:24; 10:27-30; 1 John 5:6-13). On the contrary, Jesus assures true believers in Sardis and elsewhere that He will keep them in His book and in His hand. The Bible Knowledge Commentary explains: “The statement that their names will not be erased from the book of life presents a problem to some. But a person who is truly born again remains regenerate, as John said elsewhere (John 5:24; 6:35-37, 39; 10:28-29). While this passage may imply that a name could be erased from the book of life, actually it only gives a positive affirmation that their names will not be erased.”

To the church at Thyatira

Read an introduction to the seven churches of Revelation 2-3

This is the fourth in a series of commentaries on Christ’s letters to the seven churches of Asia Minor. Read about Ephesus, Smyrna and Pergamum.

Revelation 22:18-29 (HCSB)

To the angel of the church in Thyatira write: “The Son of God, the One whose eyes are like a fiery flame, and whose feet are like fine bronze says:  I know your works—your love, faithfulness,  service, and endurance. Your last works are greater than the first.  But I have this against you: you tolerate the woman Jezebel, who calls herself a prophetess, and teaches and deceives My slaves to commit sexual immorality  and to eat meat sacrificed to idols.  I gave her time to repent, but she does not want to repent of her sexual immorality.  Look! I will throw her into a sickbed, and those who commit adultery with her into great tribulation, unless they repent of her  practices.  I will kill her children with the plague.   Then all the churches will know that I am the One who examines minds  and hearts, and I will give to each of you according to your works.  I say to the rest of you in Thyatira, who do not hold this teaching, who haven’t known the deep things  of Satan—as they say—I do not put any other burden on you.  But hold on to what you have until I come.   The victor and the one who keeps My works to the end: I will give him authority over the nations — and He will shepherd  them with an iron scepter; He will shatter them like pottery  — just as I have received ⌊this⌋ from My Father.  I will also give him the morning star. Anyone who has an ear should listen to what the Spirit says to the churches.”

The letter to the church at Thyatira

Lydia, a seller of purple goods, whose heart God opened to the message of Christ, is from this commercial center steeped in paganism (Acts 16:14). Having heard Paul’s proclamation of the gospel in Philippi, she may have taken the good news back to Thyatira and been among the first to evangelize her city. Thyatira was a military town that also boasted guilds dealing in metals and fabric. Guild members celebrated their patron deities in festivals that no doubt tempted Christians. Some even may have given in to the message of a “prophetess” who promoted illicit sex and food sacrificed to idols. The city is known for its temple to Apollo, the sun god. Thyatira is the smallest of the seven cities yet receives the longest letter, and one of the sternest rebukes, from Christ.

Christ’s self-description

Jesus identifies Himself as “The Son of God,” the only time in Revelation this name is used. The title “Son of God” is from Ps. 2:7 and expresses the unique relationship He has with the Father, just as Jesus’ favorite name for Himself, “Son of Man,” identifies Him as the Messiah and as deity (see Dan. 7:13; Matt. 26:64). Matthew Henry comments: “His general title is here, the Son of God, that is, the eternal and only-begotten Son of God, which denotes that he has the same nature with the Father, but with a distinct and subordinate manner of subsistence” (Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible : Complete and Unabridged in One Volume, Re 2:18–29). Borrowing from John’s description in Rev. 1:14-15, Jesus calls Himself “the One whose eyes are like a fiery flame, and whose feet are like fine bronze” (v. 18). He sees all with his piercing, penetrating eyes and knows the hearts of men and women. Nothing escapes His attention. And though some may seek to hide themselves beneath rocks and in caves, they will be found and made to stand before Him one day without excuse. His feet of fine bronze move swiftly and surely to judge; He will not stumble, fall, or delay.

Christ’s evaluation of the church’s condition

Jesus commends the church, saying, “I know your works – your love, faithfulness, service, and endurance. Your last works are greater than the first” (v. 19). In contrast to the church at Ephesus, which has abandoned the love it had at first, the believers in Thyatira are growing stronger in heartfelt Christian service. They are not merely busy in religious activity; they are motivated by a love for the Lord and for one another.

Nevertheless, Jesus rebukes the church for tolerating a false prophetess named Jezebel, who leads many into the same sins practiced in Pergamum – sexual immorality and eating meat sacrificed to idols. While it’s possible that a woman, Lydia, helped evangelize the city, it is now clear that a different woman, Jezebel, is leading many into grievous sins. The name Jezebel may or may not be the woman’s real name, but it suggests that she has the same influence on the church that King Ahab’s wife Jezebel had on the Israelites in Old Testament times. Jezebel’s evil is so pervasive that the Bible says her husband Ahab did more to provoke the Lord God than all the kings of Israel before him (1 Kings 16:33). Just as Ahab is responsible for the actions of those under his authority, including his wife, the leaders of the church at Thyatira are responsible for allowing the New Testament Jezebel to corrupt their congregants.

The apostle Paul makes is clear that there is nothing inherently wrong with eating meat sacrificed to idols (“We are not inferior if we don’t eat, and we are not better if we do eat” – 1 Cor. 8:8), but mature believers are to abstain from such practices if they are a stumbling block to weaker brothers and sisters; no doubt, the dietary and religious aspects of eating these meats could not be separated at Thyatira. Rather that abstain, the people indulged and the church leaders did little or  nothing to stop it. Apparently this has been going on for quite some time because Jesus says He gave Jezebel time to repent. She refused. Therefore, judgment is imminent.

“Look! I will throw her into a sickbed, and those who commit adultery with her into great tribulation, unless they repent of her practices,” Jesus declares (v. 22). Note that the time of God’s grace has ended for Jezebel but not for the church. It’s not too late for those deceived into sexual immorality and spiritual adultery. They still have an opportunity to repent. It is not God’s judgment but His kindness that leads to repentance (Rom. 2:4).

Christ goes on with a dramatic statement: “I will kill her children with the plague” (v. 23). This most likely is a reference to Jezebel’s followers, not to any innocent children she may have. Disciples, whether of Christ or of those who oppose Him, often are depicted as children and may suffer the same fate as their masters. Jesus warns His followers they will be hated, persecuted, and even killed because of their devotion to Him (Matt. 24:9; John 15:18-25), and we know from church tradition that most of the apostles suffer martyr’s deaths. At the same time, those who ally themselves with Satan and his stewards should expect to suffer the wrath of a holy and righteous God (2 Cor. 11:15b). We don’t know what the “sickbed” is in verse 22 – perhaps a pestilence of some kind, a public humiliation that exposes her wickedness, or an abandonment of her false teachings. As for the death of her “children,” this could be a reference to the second death, the lake of fire. In any case, while the church tolerated Jezebel and her evil, the Lord would not.

Finally, notice the distinction between Jesus’ reference to “My slaves” (v.20) and “her children” ( v. 23). Even though believers may be deceived and led into grievous sins, they are secure in their relationship with Christ; He loses none of those given to Him. Who suffers death in “the plague?” The children of Jezebel, who are by extension children of Satan. The result of Christ’s judgment is dramatic: “Then all the churches will know that I am the One who examines minds and hearts, and I will give to each of you according to your works” (v. 23).

Christ’s comfort and/or commands

Jesus has a word for those who have remained faithful: “I do not put any other burden on you. But hold on to what you have until I come” (vv. 24-25). The burden of the faithful in resisting Jezebel’s tempting doctrines and protesting the church’s weak defense against them is sufficient in the eyes of the Lord. He asks them simply to “hold on” to their steadfast faith in Him and their confidence that one day soon He will make things right.

Note the commendation in other passages of Scripture to those who hold on:

  • In the parable of the sower: “But the seed in the good ground – these are the ones who, having heard the word with an honest and good heart, hold on to it and by enduring, bear fruit” (Luke 8:15).
  • In Paul’s letter to the Thessalonians: “But test all things. Hold on to what is good” (5:21).
  • In Paul’s second letter to Timothy: “Hold on to the pattern of sound teaching that you have heard from me, in the faith and love that are in Christ Jesus” (1:13).
  • In the letter to the Hebrews: “But Christ was faithful as a Son over His household, whose household we are if we hold on to the courage and the confidence of our hope” (3:6) … “Let us hold on to the confession of our hope without wavering, for He who promised is faithful” (10:23) … “Therefore, since we are receiving a kingdom that cannot be shaken, let us hold on to grace. By it, we may serve God acceptably, with reverence and awe” (12:28-29).

Christ’s urge to listen

Jesus says in verse 29, “Anyone who has an ear should listen to what the Spirit says to the churches.” The church today is, in many respects, as corrupt as the one in Thyatira. While there are faithful believers who “hold on” to sound doctrine, there are many that tolerate false prophets and embrace their teachings, while some church leaders do little or nothing about it. Just as a little yeast leavens the whole lump of dough (Gal. 5:9), a little tolerance of false teachings in the interest of political correctness or for the sake of expediency will result in a church that can barely be distinguished from the world.

Christ’s promises to the victor

Jesus says, “The victor and the one who keeps My works to the end: I will give him authority over the nations … just as I have received [this] from My Father” (v. 26-27). In the middle of these words Jesus inserts a Messianic Old Testament passage, Ps. 2:9: “[A]nd He will shepherd them with an iron scepter; He will shatter them like pottery …” Jesus not only reaffirms His Messianic claims; He confirms the authority the Father gave Him to rule the nations and promises His followers a place in His coming administration. “Though Psalm 2:9 refers to Christ’s rule, John’s quotation of it here relates the ruling (shepherding) to the believer who overcomes. Believers will have authority just as Christ does (1 Cor. 6:2-3; 2 Tim. 2:12; Rev. 3:21; 20:4, 6)” (J.F. Walvoord, R.B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures).

In addition, Jesus tells the faithful He will give them “the morning star.” While the Scriptures do not elaborate on this term, Jesus uses it to identify Himself in Rev. 22:6: “I am the Root and the Offspring of David, the Bright Morning Star.” As the morning star appears just before dawn, Jesus one day will step into the clouds of heaven and return in power and great glory (Matt. 24:30). Every eye will see Him, for His coming will be like lightning (Matt. 24:27). Believers have an added promise: “We know that when He appears, we will be like Him, because we will see Him as He is” (1 John 3:2).


To the church at Pergamum

Read an introduction to the seven churches of Revelation 2-3

This is the third in a series of commentaries on Christ’s letters to the seven churches of Asia Minor. Read about Ephesus and Smyrna.

Revelation 2:12-17 (HCSB)

To the angel of the church in Pergamum write: “The One who has the sharp, two-edged sword  says:  I know  where you live—where Satan’s throne is! And you are holding on to My name and did not deny your faith in Me,  even in the days of Antipas, My faithful witness, who was killed among you, where Satan lives.  But I have a few things against you. You have some there who hold to the teaching of Balaam, who taught Balak to place a stumbling block  in front of the sons of Israel: to eat meat sacrificed to idols and to commit sexual immorality.  In the same way, you also have those who hold to the teaching of the Nicolaitans.   Therefore repent! Otherwise, I will come to you quickly and fight against them with the sword of My mouth.
Anyone who has an ear should listen to what the Spirit says to the churches. I will give the victor some of the hidden manna. I will also give him a white stone, and on the stone a new name  is inscribed that no one knows except the one who receives it.”

The city of Pergamum

Also known as Pergamos, this city lies 20 miles inland from Smyrna. It is known for its wealth, like Ephesus and Smyrna, but stands alone for its wickedness. Adherents to the city’s pagan cults worship Athena (goddess of war, civilization, wisdom, strength, strategy, crafts, justice and skill); Asclepius (the god of medicine and healing); Dionysus (god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness and ecstasy); and Zeus (the supreme ruler of Mount Olympus and of the pantheon of gods who reside there). The worship of the Roman emperor as a god permeates Asia and is evident in Pergamum. All of this evidently prompts Jesus to refer to the city as the place of Satan’s throne. Pergamum also is famous for its university with a library of 200,000 volumes, and for manufacturing parchment resulting in a paper called pergamena.

Christ’s self-description

Jesus refers to Himself as “The One who has the sharp, two-edged sword” (v. 12), confirming John’s vision, in which he states that “from His [Jesus’] mouth came a sharp two-edged sword” (1:16). In Isa. 49:2, the Servant, which many commentators take to be the Messiah, declares that “He (God the Father) made my words like a sharp sword.” In Heb. 4:12 we are told that “the word of God is living and effective and sharper than any two-edged sword, penetrating as far as to divide soul, spirit, joints, and marrow; it is a judge of the ideas and thoughts of the heart.” And in Rev. 19:15, John sees the returning Christ and observes, “From His mouth came a sharp sword, so that with it He might strike the nations.” No doubt the sharp, two-edge sword describes the very words of Jesus. Just as He spoke the universe into existence, He brings judgment and deliverance with His voice.

Christ’s evaluation of the church’s condition

Jesus says, “I know where you live – where Satan’s throne is!” (v. 12). Asclepius is worshipped in Pergamum under the sign of the serpent, and Satan, that ancient serpent (Rev. 20:2), raises up opposition against God and His people through rampant paganism, even persecuting Christ’s “faithful witness,” Antipas, to the point of death. (Little is known of this person; some commentators say his name is symbolic, meaning one standing “against all” for the sake of Christ.) Satan always seeks to deny God His rightful worship on His throne (see Rev. 4:2) and therefore erects opposing thrones on mountain peaks in pagan lands and in human hearts everywhere. Despite tribulation, believers in Pergamum are commended for “holding on” to Christ’s name and not denying their faith.

Even so, Jesus says, “I have a few things against you” (v. 14). Some in Pergamum are holding to “the teaching of Balaam,” an Israelite prophet who advised Moab’s king to seduce the Jews into intermarrying with heathens and worshiping idols (Num. 22-25; 31:15-16). In a similar fashion, the Nicolaitans, though rebuffed in Ephesus, are leading some in Pergamum to engage in sexual and spiritual infidelity. Intermarriage between Christians and pagans is a problem in Pergamum, where any social contact with the world necessarily involves idol worship. The practice of eating meat sacrificed to idols is a contentious one in the early church, and Paul deals with it deftly in 1 Cor. 8:1-13 and 10:25-33.

Christ’s comfort and/or commands

Jesus commands the wayward in Pergamum to repent. “Otherwise,” He warns, “I will come to you quickly and fight against them with the sword of My mouth” (v. 16). His threat to come quickly is a reference to temporal judgment of His church, as in 1 Cor. 11. 30-32, not the second coming. The “them” in this verse like refers to the Nicolaitans but also could be extended to the entire church for failing to more strongly oppose these false teachers. There is interesting imagery in Christ’s words “the sword of My mouth.” While they clearly point to the spoken words of Jesus the Messiah, they also remind Jewish readers of the Angel of the Lord (the preincarnate Meessiah) who opposes Balaam with a drawn sword (Num. 22:31).

Christ’s urge to listen

Jesus says in verse 17, “Anyone who has an ear should listen to what the Spirit says to the churches.” The false teachings opposed at Ephesus and embraced at Pergamum are the same “doctrines of demons” that have set back the church for nearly 2,000 years (1 Tim. 4:1). When human leaders usurp the authority of Christ, teach Christian freedom as license to sin, and make matters of conscience – like eating meat offered to idols or deciding which day of the week to worship – central points of doctrine, the church should hear, and heed, Christ’s call to repent.

Christ’s promises to the victor

Jesus says, “I will give the victor some of the hidden manna” (v. 17). As God supplied manna to the Israelites in the desert, Christ sustains His followers with Himself – His promises and His presence. “I am the bread of life,” He tells His disciples. “No one who comes to Me will ever be hungry” (John 6:35). When Jesus’ disciples urged Him to eat after He revealed Himself to the Samaritan woman, He told them, “I have food to eat that you don’t know about” (John 4:32). As the Creator of all, Christ also sustains all things “by the power of His word” (Heb. 1:3). R. Jamieson, A.R. Fausset, and D. Brown add this insight: “As the manna hidden in the sanctuary was by divine power preserved from corruption, so Christ in His incorruptible body has passed into the heavens, and is hidden there until the time of His appearing” (A Commentary, Critical and Explanatory, on the Old and New Testaments, Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc.).

Jesus goes on to say, “I will also give him [the victor] a white stone, and on the stone a new name is inscribed that no one knows except the one who receives it” (v. 17). The ESV Study Bible provides these observations: “Historically, a white stone was given to victors at games for entrance to banquets (cf. the messianic banquet); such a stone was also used by jurors at trials to vote for acquittal. The new name, given to the one who holds fast to Jesus’ name (2:13), may refer to the Holy Spirit’s work of conforming believers to the holiness of Christ (Rom. 8:29). The manna and the white stone suggest differing types of eternal blessings and rewards, as appropriate in each situation.” The white stone also may correspond to the Urim, or diamond worn by the high priest on the breastplate. No one but he knew the name inscribed on the stone – probably the unspeakable name of God: Yahweh. And only the high priest had access to the manna, which resided in the ark in the Holy of Holies. Perhaps the message here is that believers, as priests unto God, will in heaven enjoy rewards that were reserved on earth for only a few.

Next: Christ’s letter to the church at Thyatira