Tagged: Lord of Hosts in Isaiah

Isaiah 8: Prepare for War, and be Broken

Listen to a brief introduction of Isaiah 8

Download a free worksheet for further study

Prologue

Where we are:

Part 1: Judgment

Part 2: Historical Interlude

Part 3: Salvation

Chapters 1-35

Chapters 36-39

Chapters 40-66

When this takes place:

Chapter 8 takes place during Ahaz’s reign, after Assyria has defeated Aram and Israel. This should have prompted Judah to turn to God, but instead Ahaz orders his priests to conform their temple worship to the practices of the pagans in Damascus.

Key verse:

Isa. 8:13:  You are to regard only the Lord of Hosts as holy. Only He should be feared; only He should be held in awe.

Quick summary:

The armies of Assyria are about to pour into Judah, flooding the nation up to its very head, Jerusalem. The people are instructed to abandon their fear of men like Rezin of Aram and Pekah of Israel, who terrorize Ahaz but soon will be dead, and instead put their trust in God, who will be a refuge to those who turn to Him.

Take note:

Isaiah describes the Lord as a sanctuary for those who trust in Him, but “a stone to stumble over and a rock to trip over” for those who persist in rebellion against Him (v. 14). Peter quotes a portion of this passage, referring to those who reject Jesus as Messiah (1 Peter 2:8), as does Paul in Rom. 9:33.

Damascus and Samaria fall (Isa. 8:1-8)

Isaiah is instructed to write on a large scroll the name of a son who would be born to him and his wife. The son’s name is announced even before he is conceived to emphasize the certainty of his birth and the inevitability of the national calamity his name describes. Maher-shalal-hash-baz is the longest personal name in the Bible. It means “quick to the plunder, swift to the spoil.” Soldiers are known to shout these words to one another as they sweep down on their defeated foes. Remembering the prophecy of the fall of the Aram-Israel alliance (Isa. 7:4-9), Isaiah’s listeners understand the significance of his son’s name as they watch for the imminent defeat of Judah’s neighbors.

Isaiah’s wife is called “the prophetess” either because she is the wife of a prophet or because, like Isaiah, God has gifted her with prophetic abilities. The Bible does not record any instances in which she prophesies, although some commentators believe this is the best interpretation of her descriptive name. In less than two years – nine months for the pregnancy and about one year of the child’s infancy – Assyria will plunder Damascus (Aram’s capital) and Samaria (Israel’s capital). Many scholars say this happened in 732 B.C., indicating that Isaiah’s prophecy is given in 734 B.C. When the alliance falls, Judah should turn to the Lord, as Isaiah urges. Instead, one of the two witnesses (v. 2), Uriah the priest, follows Ahaz’s orders and changes the temple worship to conform to the pagan practices of Damascus.

The term “these people” in verse 6 could refer to Judah, which rejects God and will come to experience the brutality of Assyria. More likely, however, the phrase describes the northern kingdom, which turns its back on Judah – “the slowly flowing waters of Shiloah” may be a reference to Jerusalem – in favor of an alliance with Aram. As a result, “the mighty rushing waters” of Assyria will sweep through the northern kingdom and ultimately destroy Judah as well.

A believing remnant (Isa. 8:9-22)

Though Judah almost would be defeated by the Assyrian invasion, Isaiah urges the people not to be afraid because they will experience victory. John F. Walvoord and Roy B. Zuck comment: “The great truth of chapters 7-9 is that God was with Judah…. Even though the nations would raise a war cry and prepare for battle against Judah, they would not succeed. They would be shattered, a fact stated three times in verse 9 for emphasis…. Because God has promised to be with His people they were to have faith in Him no matter how bad their circumstances” (The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, S. 1:1051).

Despite God’s promise, many in Judah refuse to trust in Him, and the Lord warns Isaiah not to be like them (v. 11). The Lord will be a sanctuary for those who believe in Him, but “a stone to stumble over and a rock to trip over, and a trap and a snare” to those who reject Him (v. 14). Peter quotes a portion of this verse, referring to those who reject the Messiah (1 Peter 2:8). This is a subtle but important reference to the deity of Christ and the unity of the triune Godhead. Along these lines, it is interesting to note that Heb. 2:13 ascribes the words in Isa. 8:17c-18a to Christ. While the immediate context indicates that Isaiah is speaking these words and referring to the children God has given him as signs, in the larger context Jesus (Immanuel / God with us) has placed these messages on Isaiah’s lips. Perhaps more important, since Jesus is the eternal Son of God who took on human flesh, the writer of Hebrews points to the common humanity Christ now shares with those who trust in Him.

For Isaiah to “bind up the testimony” and “seal up the instruction,” he is reaffirming his dependence on God and inscribing His word on the hearts of His followers. D.A. Carson calls verses 16-18 “a kernel of immense promise. With the expression my disciples, God introduces a new definition of his people and their relation to him…. Isaiah’s responsive faith (17) speaks for such, and the little group of v 18 is seen in Heb. 2:13 as typical of the church gathered around Christ” (New Bible Commentary: 21st Century Edition, S. Is 8:16).

These disciples stand in stark contrast to the people described in verses 19-22. They practice what God prohibits (see Deut. 18:9-12). Instead of prophets, they seek out mediums. Instead of teaching, they embrace gibberish. And instead of the living, they desire guidance from the dead. No wonder there will be “no dawn for them” (v. 20). An interesting side note about the spiritists (necromancers) who “chirp” in verse 19: Faint chirping, as of birds, generally is ascribed to departed spirits in biblical times. By ventriloquism soothsayers would cause these sounds to emerge from the grave. Basically, it is all smoke and mirrors. That may be the reason the Septuagint, the Greek translation of the Old Testament, translates the word “spiritists” in this verse as “ventriloquists.”

The result of all this, according to Isaiah, is that the people who reject God’s message will end up wandering, dejected and hungry. Rather then acknowledge the error of their ways, they will look up and curse their king and their God, a response that foreshadows the reaction of the Antichrist’s followers to the judgments of God in the last days (Rev. 16:11). Ultimately, those who reject God see “only distress, darkness, and the gloom of affliction (v. 22).

Closing Thought

Gary V. Smith comments:

These negative experiences teach a positive lesson. People need to pay attention to God’s revealed will and follow it, as Isaiah and his followers did. This obedience leads to a faithful relationship of respect and awe before the presence of a holy God, as well as hopeful waiting for God to act and confident assurance in his plan (8:17). Temptations to follow the false messages of proud political leaders, secular materialistic philosophies, and misguided religious leaders will be less attractive when people put them under the scrutiny of divine truth (8:20) (The New American Commentary: Isaiah 1-39, pp. 232-33).

Copyright 2008 by Rob Phillips

Isaiah 6: Holy, Holy, Holy

Listen to the audio file

Download a worksheet for further study (pdf)

Prologue

Where we are:

Part 1: Judgment

Part 2: Historical Interlude

Part 3: Salvation

Chapters 1-35

Chapters 36-39

Chapters 40-66

When this takes place:

Chapter 6 recounts an event in “the year that King Uzziah died” (v. 1).

Key verse:

Isa. 6:3:  And one [seraphim] called to another: Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of Hosts; His glory fills the whole earth.

Quick summary:

Isaiah has a stunning vision of the Lord, who sends the prophet to keep preaching to the unrepentant Jews “until the land is ruined and desolate” (v. 11).

Take note:

This is the only place in Scripture where seraphim are mentioned by name. Apparently these creatures are among the highest order of angels and serve at the throne of God. Their name, which means “burning ones,” describes their role as proclaimers of God’s holiness. They also declare that man must be purged of sin’s moral defilement before he may stand before God and serve Him. Seraphim appear to have some human features since they are depicted as standing, having faces, and having feet. Yet they also have six wings each and are capable of flight. Their acts of worship are so intense that they cause the thresholds of the divine Temple to shake. They stand ready to serve God at a moment’s notice.

In comparison, cherubim have an extraordinary appearance with four faces – those of a man, lion, ox and eagle – four wings and the feet of calves. They guard the gate to the Garden of Eden, preventing sinful man from reentering (Gen. 3:24). They also are depicted as golden figures covering the mercy seat above the ark in the Holy of Holies (Ex. 25:17-22), and they attend the glory of God in Ezekiel’s vision (Ezek. 1).

However seraphim and cherubim are different, they appear to be some of God’s most powerful, intelligent, and beautiful creatures. Satan may have been an “anointed guardian cherub” (Ezek. 28:14) if Ezekiel 28 is a reference to him before his rebellion.

Isaiah’s vision (Isa. 6:1-7)

There is some debate as to whether this passage should be at the beginning of Isaiah rather than inserted here. But because much of what we’ve read so far – especially Isa. 2-5 – deals with events during Uzziah’s life, it seems clear that Isaiah’s vision in “the year of Uzziah’s death” (v. 1) is his inauguration into a new level of ministry. However, some argue that Uzziah’s “death” could mean the end of his civil service as king due to his leprosy. If that’s the case, Isaiah’s vision would have come many years before the king’s death. An interesting thought: Isaiah’s claim to have seen God may have been the pretext for his being sawed asunder under Manassah’s reign, according to tradition (see Heb. 11:37).

Isaiah’s vision of the Lord (Adonai in v. 1; Yahweh in v. 5) implies the Trinity in unity. Jesus is interpreted to be the one speaking in Isa. 6:10 according to John 12:41, while Paul attributes the words to the Holy Spirit (Acts 28:25-7). Also, the seraphims’ declaration of the Lord as “Holy, holy, holy” provides additional support to the notion that what Isaiah saw was a representation of the Triune Godhead if not God’s divine essence (see John 1:18). The Trinity is further implied later in verse 8, where God says, “… who will go for Us?” In any case, what Isaiah sees is different from the Shekinah glory that resides above the mercy seat in the Holy of Holies, for the Lord is seated here on a throne, attended by heavenly creatures, and His robe fills the Temple.

The seraphim have been discussed above, but Jamieson, Fausset and Brown provide some added insight. They say that while the term is used nowhere else in Scripture of God’s attending angels, it is used to describe the rapidly moving serpents the Lord sent to torment the Israelites (Num. 21:6). The commentators add, “Perhaps Satan’s form as a serpent (nachash) in his appearance to man has some connection with his original form as a seraph of flight” (A Commentary, Critical and Explanatory, on the Old and New Testaments, Logos Research Systems, S. Is. 6:2).

Isaiah’s response to this vision of the Lord is consistent with the reaction of others in Scripture who encounter God after the Fall: fear and a realization of one’s complete

inadequacy in the presence of Almighty God. Isaiah’s words in verse 5 are instructive:

  • “Woe is me, for I am ruined.” Some translations say “undone” or “lost.” Isaiah is in good company when he gasps at being in the presence of the Lord. Gideon has a similar response (Judges 6:22). So do Manoah (Judges 13:22), Job (Job 42:5), Peter (Luke 5:8) and John (Rev. 1:17). Isaiah has pronounced woes on the inhabitants of Judah; now he declares that he, too, is subject to judgment.
  • “… because I am a man of unclean lips and live among a people of unclean lips.” John Walvoord and Roy Zuck comment: “When seen next to the purity of God’s holiness, the impurity of human sin is all the more evident. The prophet’s unclean lips probably symbolized his attitudes and actions as well as his words, for a person’s words reflect his thinking and relate to his actions. Interestingly Isaiah identified with his people who also were sinful (a people of unclean lips)” (The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, S. 1:1045).
  • “… and because my eyes have seen the King, the Lord of Hosts.” Isaiah sees, not necessarily God in his full glory (John 1:18; 1 Tim. 6:16), but a representation of His presence. The writer of Hebrews, for example, says Christ is “the exact expression of His nature” (Heb. 1:3), and John tells us the Word, who is God, “became flesh and took up residence among us” (John 1:14).

In verses 6-7 one of the seraphim flies to Isaiah and touches his mouth with a glowing coal he has snatched with a tong from the altar. The heavenly creature declares that Isaiah’s wickedness is removed and his sin is atoned for. Jamieson, Fausset and Brown have an interesting perspective on this: “The mouth was touched because it was the part to be used by the prophet when inaugurated. So ‘tongues of fire’ rested on the disciples (Acts 2:3, 4) when they were being set apart to speak in various languages of Jesus” (A Commentary, Critical and Explanatory, of the Old and New Testaments, S. Is 6:7).

Isaiah’s commission (Isa. 6:8-13)

The Lord’s self-reference to both “I” and “Us” strongly suggests the triune nature of the Godhead (see also Gen. 1:26; 11:7). The Lord’s questions – “Who should I send?” and “Who will go for Us?” – indicate that few are both willing and qualified to deliver the unwelcome message to the Jews, enduring hardship, rejection, and unbelief. Isaiah responds promptly to the call: “Here I am. Send me.” Eagerness for service is a sign of God’s purifying and enabling work in a believer’s life (see also 1 Sam. 3:10; Acts 9:6-8).

The Lord immediately lays out His challenging mission. Isaiah is to declare God’s truth, but it will only result in hardening of the people’s hearts. Judah’s rejection of Isaiah’s message, and the sovereign Lord who initiated it, are as certain is if they already have occurred. This passage, like many others throughout Scripture, illustrates the mystery of the parallel truths of God’s sovereignty and human responsibility. This particular decree of hardening is repeated in full or in part six times in the New Testament (for example, Matt. 13:14-15; Acts 28:26-27), but it should be read in its entirety to see that God’s pending judgment will clear the ground for new national and spiritual growth.

D.A. Carson puts it well:

Isaiah fulfilled this mission to blind and deafen by proclaiming (not withholding) the truth. God here shares with the prophet the critical significance of his ministry. Sinful Israel has come to the point where one more rejection of the truth will finally confirm them for inevitable judgment. The dilemma of the prophet is that there is no way of saving the sinner but by the very truth whose rejection will condemn him utterly (New Bible Commentary: 21st Century Edition, S. Is 6:1).

The Lord does not leave Isaiah or his beloved nation without hope, however. He assures the prophet that there will be a remnant, a “holy stump,” that will sprout again one day. Although Judah’s population would be almost totally wiped out, like a fallen and burned tree, God would preserve a remnant in the land. The Tyndale Bible Commentary says “there would be life in the roots of the stump from which the Messiah (‘the holy seed’) would grow again” (S 260).

Closing Thought

Larry Richards and Lawrence O. Richards comment:

Uzziah’s death was symbolic. He who had begun so well and had found prosperity in obedience had been struck by the dread disease of leprosy. An appearance of health and strength remained for a time, but the disease was at work within the body of the king; its marks became more and more visible as the ravages of that dread sickness took their toll. Finally, destroyed within and without, Uzziah died; his pride and his disobedience brought judgment on him. Isaiah pointed out that Judah was also diseased, just like her king, because she too had deserted the Lord (The Teacher’s Commentary, S 367).

Copyright 2008 by Rob Phillips